The pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1), the major etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS), has led to over 33 million people living with the virus, among which 18 million are women and children. Until now, there is neither an effective vaccine nor a therapeutic cure despite over 30 years of efforts. Although the Thai RV144 vaccine trial has demonstrated an efficacy of 31.2%, an effective vaccine will likely rely on a breakthrough discovery of immunogens to elicit broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, which may take years to achieve. Therefore, there is an urgency of exploring other prophylactic strategies. Recently, antiretroviral treatment as prevention is an exciting area of progress in HIV-1 research. Although effective, the implementation of such strategy faces great financial, political and social challenges in heavily affected regions such as developing countries where drug resistant viruses have already been found with growing incidence. Activating latently infected cells for therapeutic cure is another area of challenge. Since it is greatly difficult to eradicate HIV-1 after the establishment of viral latency, it is necessary to investigate strategies that may close the door to HIV-1. Here, we review studies on non-vaccine strategies in targeting viral entry, which may have critical implications for HIV-1 prevention.
SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), also known as RBX2 (RING box protein 2), ROC2 (Regulator of Cullins 2), or RNF7 (RING Finger Protein 7), was originally cloned in our laboratory as a redox inducible antioxidant protein and later characterized as the second member of the RBX/ROC RING component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL-F-box Proteins) E3 ubiquitin ligase. When acting alone, SAG scavenges oxygen radicals by forming inter- and intra- molecular disulfide bonds, whereas by forming a complex with other components of the SCF E3 ligase, SAG promotes ubiquitination and degradation of a number of protein substrates, including c-JUN, DEPTOR, HIF-1α, IκBα, NF1, NOXA, p27, and procaspase-3, thus regulating various signaling pathways and biological processes. Specifically, SAG protects cells from apoptosis, confers radioresistance, and plays an essential and non-redundant role in mouse embryogenesis and vasculogenesis. Furthermore, stress-inducible SAG is overexpressed in a number of human cancers and SAG overexpression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Finally, SAG transgenic expression in epidermis causes an early stage inhibition, but later stage promotion, of skin tumorigenesis triggered by DMBA/TPA. Given its major role in promoting targeted degradation of tumor suppressive proteins, leading to apoptosis suppression and accelerated tumorigenesis, SAG E3 ligase appears to be an attractive anticancer target.
Initial skirmishes between the host and pathogen result in spillage of the contents of the bacterial cell. Amongst the spillage, the secondary messenger molecule, cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c di-GMP), was recently shown to be bound by stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Binding of c di-GMP by STING activates the Tank Binding Kinase (TBK1) mediated signaling cascades that galvanize the body' defenses for elimination of the pathogen. In addition to c di-GMP, STING has also been shown to function in innate immune responses against pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) originating from the DNA or RNA of pathogens. The pivotal role of STING in host defense is exemplified by the fact that STING-/- mice die upon infection by HSV-1. Thus, STING plays an essential role in innate immune responses against pathogens. This opens up an exciting possibility of targeting STING for development of adjuvant therapies to boost the immune defenses against invading microbes. Similarly, STING could be targeted for mitigating the inflammatory responses augmented by the innate immune system. This review summarizes and updates our current understanding of the role of STING in innate immune responses and discusses the future challenges in delineating the mechanism of STING-mediated responses.
Interferon (IFN)-mediated pathways are a crucial part of the cellular response against viral infection. Type III IFNs, which include IFN-λ1, 2 and 3, mediate antiviral responses similar to Type I IFNs via a distinct receptor complex. IFN-λ1 is more effective than the other two members. Transcription of IFN-λ1 requires activation of IRF3/7 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), similar to the transcriptional mechanism of Type I IFNs. Using reporter assays, we discovered that viral infection induced both IFN-λ1 promoter activity and that of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), indicating that IFN-λ1 expression is also regulated at the post-transcriptional level. After analysis with microRNA (miRNA) prediction programs and 3'UTR targeting site assays, the miRNA- 548 family, including miR-548b-5p, miR-548c-5p, miR-548i, miR-548j, and miR-548n, was identified to target the 3'UTR of IFN-λ1. Further study demonstrated that miRNA-548 mimics down-regulated the expression of IFN-λ1. In contrast, their inhibitors, the complementary RNAs, enhanced the expression of IFN-λ1 and IFN-stimulated genes. Furthermore, miRNA-548 mimics promoted infection by enterovirus-71 (EV71) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), whereas their inhibitors significantly suppressed the replication of EV71 and VSV. Endogenous miRNA-548 levels were suppressed during viral infection. In conclusion, our results suggest that miRNA-548 regulates host antiviral response via direct targeting of IFN-λ1, which may offer a potential candidate for antiviral therapy.
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important pattern recognition receptor that detects viral RNA and triggers the production of type-I interferons through the downstream adaptor MAVS (also called IPS-1, CARDIF, or VISA). A series of structural studies have elaborated some of the mechanisms of dsRNA recognition and activation of RIG-I. Recent studies have proposed that K63-linked ubiquitination of, or unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin binding to RIG-I positively regulates MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling. Conversely phosphorylation of RIG-I appears to play an inhibitory role in controlling RIG-I antiviral signal transduction. Here we performed a combined structural and biochemical study to further define the regulatory features of RIG-I signaling. ATP and dsRNA binding triggered dimerization of RIG-I with conformational rearrangements of the tandem CARD domains. Full length RIG-I appeared to form a complex with dsRNA in a 2:2 molar ratio. Compared with the previously reported crystal structures of RIG-I in inactive state, our electron microscopic structure of full length RIG-I in complex with blunt-ended dsRNA, for the first time, revealed an exposed active conformation of the CARD domains. Moreover, we found that purified recombinant RIG-I proteins could bind to the CARD domain of MAVS independently of dsRNA, while S8E and T170E phosphorylation-mimicking mutants of RIG-I were defective in binding E3 ligase TRIM25, unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin, and MAVS regardless of dsRNA. These findings suggested that phosphorylation of RIG inhibited downstream signaling by impairing RIG-I binding with polyubiquitin and its interaction with MAVS.
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) acts as a netrin-1 receptor and mediates attractive response of axons to netrin-1 in neural development. However, the signaling mechanisms of netrin-DSCAM remain unclear. Here we report that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) interacts with DSCAM through its γ subunit, but does not interact with DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer), another major receptor for netrin-1. Netrin-treatment of cultured cortical neurons leads to increased phosphorylation of AMPK. Both AMPK mutant with dominant-negative effect and AMPK inhibitor can significantly suppress netrin-1 induced neurite outgrowth. Together, these findings demonstrate that AMPK interacts with DSCAM and plays an important role in netrin-1 induced neurite outgrowth. Our study uncovers a previously unknown component, AMPK, in netrin-DSCAM signaling pathway.