Dec 2012, Volume 6 Issue 4

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    Teng WU, Ahsan KAREEM

    A brief overview of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of circular cylinders is first given as most of VIV studies have been focused on this particular bluff cross-section. A critical literature review of VIV of bridge decks that highlights physical mechanisms central to VIV from a renewed perspective is provided. The discussion focuses on VIV of bridge decks from wind-tunnel experiments, full-scale observations, semi-empirical models and computational fluids dynamics (CFD) perspectives. Finally, a recently developed reduced order model (ROM) based on truncated Volterra series is introduced to model VIV of long-span bridges. This model captures successfully salient features of VIV at “lock-in” and unlike most phenomenological models offers physical significance of the model kernels.

    Xiaoqun LUO, Hanbin GE, Tsutomu USAMI

    The objective of the present study is to analytically investigate temperature effects of an axial-type seismic damper made of shape memory alloys (SMAs) equipped in steel frames. Based on a modified multilinear one dimensional constitutive model of SMAs, two types of SMAs are employed, which have different stress plateau and different stress growth rate with temperature increase. Temperature effects of SMA dampers on seismic performance upgrading are discussed in three aspects: different environment temperatures; rapid loading rate induced heat generation and different SMA fractions. The analysis indicates that the effect of environment temperature should be considered for the SMA damper in steel frames. However, the rapid loading rate induced heat generation has little adverse effect.

    Xi CHEN, Wei XU

    The deformation law of the cellular diaphragm wall in deep foundation pits was studied through numerical simulation. Based on the example of the dock wall in engineering, the full three-dimensional finite element model was used to simulate the excavation of the foundation pit. Interaction between the cellular diaphragm wall and the soil was also taken into account in the calculation. The results indicated that the maximum lateral displacement, which is the evaluation index of sensitivity analysis, appeared on the top of the interior longitudinal wall with an excavation depth of 10 m. The centrifuge model test was carried out to study the deformation regulation for a cellular diaphragm wall. The most sensitive factor was found by adjusting the length of the partition wall, the spacing of the partition wall and the thickness of the wall. In the end, a suggestion was proposed to optimize the cellular diaphragm by adjusting the length of the partition wall.


    Behavior of rockfills was investigated experimentally and theoretically. A series of standard triaxial compression tests were carried out on a quarried rockfill material at different stress levels. It was found that both the stress level and the shear stress ratio, like most of granular materials, controls the behavior of rockfill materials. At lower shear stress ratios the behavior is much more similar to a nonlinear elastic solid. When the shear stress goes further, the stress-strain curve shows an elasto-plastic behavior which suggests using the disturbed state concept to develop a constitutive model to predict the stress-strain behavior. The presented constitutive model complies reasonably with the experimental data.

    Wei GUO, Zhiwu YU

    An isolated structure often possesses distinct non-proportional damping characteristics. However, traditional seismic calculation theory and methods are derived based on the assumption that damping is proportional. Based on this drawback, a new, more efficient stochastic calculation method, an improvement on the pseudo-excitation method, is introduced. This method is then applied to the seismic analysis of an isolated structure. By comparing it with the forced decoupling, matrix inversion and iteration methods, it is shown that the presented method can produce accurate results while increasing the efficiency of the stochastic analysis. Moreover, the calculation process of the seismic response of an isolated structure is convergent. Based on the results of the example presented in this paper, the given method is applicable to the seismic analysis of an isolated structure and can be utilized in practice.

    Liu HE, Guang WU, Hua WANG

    In this paper, a physical base friction test model of a slope is established. The model is based on similarity principles and the geological conditions of a complicated bridge slope during construction, deformation and failure. The behavior of the slope in both its natural state and during excavation loading is qualitatively analyzed through base friction tests. The base friction test results are then subjected to comparison and analysis using finite element numerical simulation. The findings show that the whole engineered slope tends to stabilize in its natural state, whereas instabilities will arise at faulted rock masses located near bridge piers during excavation loading. Therefore, to ensure normal construction operation of bridge works, it is suggested that pre-reinforcement of faulted rock masses be performed.

    Qiangong CHENG, Jiujiang WU, Zhang SONG, Hua WEN

    The rectangular closed diaphragm (RCD) wall is a new type of bridge foundation. Compared to barrette foundation, measuring the performance of RCD walls is relatively complicated because of their incorporation of a soil core. Using the FLAC3D software, this paper investigates the deformation properties, soil resistance and skin friction of a laterally loaded RCD wall as well as the settlement, axial force and load-sharing ratio of a vertically loaded RCD wall. Special attention is given to the analysis of factors that influence the performance of the soil core. It was found that under lateral loading, the RCD wall behaves as an end-bearing friction wall during the entire loading process. The relative displacement between the wall body and the soil core primarily occurs below the rotation point, and the horizontal displacement of the soil core is greater than that of the wall body. Under vertical loading, the degree of inner skin friction around the bottom of the soil core and the proportion of the loading supported by the soil core increase with increased cross-section size. The wall depth is directly proportional to the loading supported by the outer skin friction and the tip resistance of the wall body and is inversely proportional to the loading borne by the soil core.


    This study presents the investigation of the approach which was presented by Thaer M. Saeed Alrudaini to provide the alternate load path to redistribute residual loads and preventing from the potential progressive collapse of RC buildings. It was proposed to transfer the residual loads upwards above the failed column of RC buildings by vertical cables hanged at the top to a hat steel braced frame seated on top of the building which in turn redistributes the residual loads to the adjacent columns. In this study a ten-storey regular structural building has been considered to investigate progressive collapse potential. Structural design is based on ACI 318-08 concrete building code for special RC frames and the nonlinear dynamic analysis is carried out using SAP2000 software, following UFC4-023-03 document. Nine independent failure scenarios are adopted in the investigation, including six external removal cases in different floors and three removal cases in the first floor. A new detail is proposed by using barrel and wedge to improve residual forces transfer to the cables after removal of the columns. Simulation results show that progressive collapse of building that resulted from potential failure of columns located in floors can be efficiently resisted by using this method.

    Marc SMITH

    A zoned embankment dam is founded on clay underlain by a sand deposit. Major seepage phenomena were noticed in the foundation downstream from the dam where the vertical seepage forces in the sand layer were expected to exceed the downward forces due to the overlying clay. Modern technologies were applied to delineate critical zones to help design optimal rehabilitation measures. A global electromagnetic survey was carried out to detect and map the main sources, pathways and exits of seepage. Based on these global findings, a more detailed analysis was then conducted to identify zones where thickness of the foundation clay is minimal, pore pressures in sand are higher and thus where the factor of safety against uplift is lower and internal erosion is more likely to occur. Clay thickness evaluation required the determination of land surface as well as clay-sand contact elevations. A laser airborne survey was performed to model the land surface elevation. Data concerning the clay-sand contact elevation came from the interpreted stratigraphy based on a series of boreholes and cone penetration tests. This data was combined in a geostatistical model along with the measured piezometric levels in the foundation. This resulted in a contour map showing factors of safety against uplift over the entire downstream area. The use of modern technologies, namely electromagnetic and laser surveys as well as geostatistical tools, was instrumental in defining the limits of an otherwise spread-out problem and to provide an optimal solution, in terms of costs and effectiveness, for the long-term stabilization of the foundation.