Sep 2007, Volume 2 Issue 3

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  • LONG Gui-lu, DENG Fu-guo, WANG Chuan, WEN Kai, WANG Wan-ying, LI Xi-han
    In this review article, we review the recent development of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) and deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) which both are used to transmit secret message, including the criteria for QSDC, some interesting QSDC protocols, the DSQC protocols and QSDC network, etc. The difference between these two branches of quantum communication is that DSQC requires the two parties exchange at least one bit of classical information for reading out the message in each qubit, and QSDC does not. They are attractive because they are deterministic, in particular, the QSDC protocol is fully quantum mechanical. With sophisticated quantum technology in the future, the QSDC may become more and more popular. For ensuring the safety of QSDC with single photons and quantum information sharing of single qubit in a noisy channel, a quantum privacy amplification protocol has been proposed. It involves very simple CHC operations and reduces the information leakage to a negligible small level. Moreover, with the one-party quantum error correction, a reation has been established between classical linear codes and quantum one-party codes, hence it is convenient to transfer many good classical error correction codes to the quantum world. The one-party quantum error correction codes are especially designed for quantum dense coding and related QSDC protocols based on dense coding.
  • LIU Quan-hui
    An alternative quantum theory for single particles bounded in the external field proposed in 1986 (Huang X. Y., Phys. Lett. A., 1986, 115: 310) is further developed from which the energy of the state for the single particle takes one of the eigenvalues of the quantum Hamiltonian, and the usual quantum mechanics for the particle in a stationary state holds only in the statistical sense. In light of the theory, the particle of definite energy, ground-state-energy for instance, can exhibit a novel periodic behavior. This result for the ground-state-energy state neutron in the Earth's gravitational field is experimentally testable using ultracold neutron beam passing through the same apparatus that was devised in 2002 to identify the energy quantization of neutron in the field (Nesvizhevsky V. V., et al., Nature, 2002, 415: 297).
  • GU Ben-yuan, ZHAO Li-ming
    The characteristics of the second harmonic generations (SHGs) in homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems are investigated. We consider two kinds of structures: one is aperiodic optical superlattices (AOSs) with homogeneous linear susceptibility and the modulated second-order nonlinear susceptibility; the second is linear and nonlinear susceptibilities both the system with inhomogeneous. We derive a general solution of SHG for the AOS with finite lateral width and of SHG in considering the depletion of the pump light power. We carry out the design of AOSs by using simulation annealing (SA) algorithm and show that the constructed AOSs can implement multiple wavelength SHGs with identical effective nonlinear coefficient at the preassigned wavelengths of incident light. We observe great enhancement of SHGs in the one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) with defects consisting of multiple photonic quantum wells made of nonlinear material when the frequency of fundamental wave aims at one of the defect states. We also propose an effective design approach of aperiodically stacked layers of nonlinear material and air in terms of the SA method. The constructed structure can achieve multiple-wavelength SHGs at the preassigned wavelengths.
  • LANG Xing-you, JIANG Qing
    With the miniaturization of devices, size and interface effects become increasingly important for the properties and performances of nanomaterials. Here, we present a thermodynamic approach to the mechanism behind size-induced unusual behavior in the phase stabilities of ferromagnetic (FM), antiferromagnetic (AFM), ferroelectric (FE), and superconductive (SC) nanocrystals, which are different dramatically from their bulk counterparts. This method is based on the Lindemann criterion for melting, Mott s expression for the vibrational melting entropy, and the Shi model for the size-dependent melting temperature. Simple and unified functions, without any adjustable parameter, are established for the size and interface dependences of thermal and phase stabilities of FM, AFM, FE and SC nanocrystals. According to these analytic functions, as the size of nanocrystals is reduced, the thermal and phase stabilities may strengthen or weaken, depending on the confluence of the surface/volume ratio of nanocrystals and the FM(AFM, FE or SC)/substrate interface situations. The validity of this model is confirmed by a large number of experimental results. This theory will be significant for the choice of materials and the design of devices for practical application.
  • DING Jian-ming, JIANG Qing, ZHONG Chong-gui
    In this letter, we investigate the influence of the stress on magnetoelectric (ME) effect in a magnetostrictive-PZT bilayer. ME voltage coefficient α*EEδH?????, where δE is the induced electric field for an applied alternating current (ac) magnetic field δH, is obtained by solving the stress-related piezoelectric constitutive equation and the conventional magnetostrictive equation with appropriate boundary condition. Based on the free-energy density function of the PZT film in stress state, we get the stress-related piezoelectric charge coefficient pd*31 and dielectric permittivity pε*33. After taking the cobalt ferrite (CFO) as magnetostrictive phase, it is found that α*E increases with decreasing 2-d compressive stress for CFO-PZT, which not only is qualitatively consistent with previous experimental measurements, but also provides a possible route to improve the ME effect.
  • LI Li-ben, YOU Jing-han, CHEN Qing-dong
    A group of position-thickness-dependent stresses are used to modified Landau-Devonshire theory to investigate the second-order phase transition in Ba1-xSrxTiO3 films. The result shows that the short-range interaction between the unit cells of the film and the substrate induces the phase transition dispersion and the rise of the transition temperature in the films. The dependence of the effective dielectric constant on the temperature and the average spontaneous polarization on the film thickness are computed, which qualitatively agree with the experiments.
  • LI Li, ZHANG Duan-ming, LI Zhi-hua, TAN Xin-yu, FANG Ran-ran
    In this paper, the effect of the absorptivity of metal on femtosecond pulsed laser ablation is investigated. The formulas for the absorptivity depending on target temperature are derived from Maxwell Equations and the Lambert-Beer s law. Based on this, a new two-temperature model is proposed to describe the femtosecond pulsed laser ablation with metal. Then, using Au as an example, a finite difference method is employed to simulate the space- dependent and time-dependent absorptivity and the target temperature. The temperature evolution of our model is compared with the result obtained form the heat conduction model taking the absorptivity as constant. It is shown that the absorptivity plays an important role in the femtosecond pulsed laser ablation. The results of this paper are helpful in choosing the best technical parameters in femtosecond pulsed laser ablation.
  • CHEN Lie-wen, KO Che Ming, LI Bao-an, YONG Gao-chan
    Heavy-ion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei provide a unique means to investigate the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter, especially the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, recent analyses of the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion reactions have already put a stringent constraint on the nuclear symmetry energy around the nuclear matter saturation density. We review this exciting result and discuss its implications on nuclear effective interactions and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei. In addition, we also review the theoretical progress on probing the high density behaviors of the nuclear symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by high energy radioactive beams.
  • GUO Han-ying, HUANG Chao-guang, TIAN Yu, XU Zhan, ZHOU Bin
    There is a one-to-one correspondence between Snyder s model in de Sitter space of momenta and the dS-invariant special relativity as well as a minimum uncertainty-like relation. This indicates that physics at the Planck length ?P and the scale R = (3/Λ)1/2 should be dual to each other and there is in-between gravity of local dS-invariance characterized by a dimensionless coupling constant g = ?P/R ~ 10-61.
  • LIU Cui-mei, LI Jun-wei
    By using the tools of statistical physics and recent investigations of the scaling properties of different complex networks, the structural and evolving properties of the Chinese railway network (CRN) is studied. It has been verified that the CRN has the same small-world properties of the Indian railway network (IRN). According to the class of small-world networks, we believe the CRN is a single scale. In addition, a novel result is obtained. Measurements on the CRN indicate that the rate at which nodes acquire links depends on the node s degree and follows a power law.
  • MA Jin-long, MA Fei-te
    This paper seeks to solve the difficult nonlinear problem in financial markets on the complex system theory and the nonlinear dynamics principle, with the data-model-concept-practice issue-oriented reconstruction of the phase space by the high frequency trade data. In theory, we have achieved the differentiable manifold geometry configuration, discovered the Yang-Mills functional in financial markets, obtained a meaningful conserved quantity through corresponding space-time non-Abel localization gauge symmetry transformation, and derived the financial solitons, which shows that there is a strict symmetry between manifold fiber bundle and gauge field in financial markets. In practical applications of financial markets, we have repeatedly carried out experimental tests in a fluctuant evolvement, directly simulating and validating the existence of solitons by researching the price fluctuations (society phenomena) using the same methods and criterion as in natural science and in actual trade to test the stock Guangzhou Proprietary and the futures Fuel Oil in China. The results demonstrate that the financial solitons discovered indicates that there is a kind of new substance and form of energy existing in financial trade markets, which likely indicates a new science paradigm in the economy and society domains beyond physics.