This paper proposes a new eddy current method, named equivalent unit method (EUM), for the thickness measurement of the top copper film of multilayer interconnects in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, which is an important step in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. The influence of the underneath circuit layers on the eddy current is modeled and treated as an equivalent film thickness. By subtracting this equivalent film component, the accuracy of the thickness measurement of the top copper layer with an eddy current sensor is improved and the absolute error is 3 nm for sampler measurement.
In this paper, a novel 3-degree of freedom (3-DOF) spatial parallel kinematic machine (PKM) is analyzed. The manipulator owns three main motions (two rotations and one translation) and three concomitant motions (one rotation and two translations). At first, the structure of this spatial PKM is simplified according to the characteristic of each limb. Secondly, the kinematics model of this spatial PKM is set up. In addition, the relationship between the main motions and concomitant motions is studied. The workspaces respectively based on the outputs and inputs are derived and analyzed. Furthermore, the velocity model is put forward. Two indexes based on the velocity model are employed to investigate the performance of this spatial PKM. At last, the output error model can be obtained and simulated. The comprehensive kinematics analysis in this paper is greatly useful for the future applications of this spatial PKM.
Packaged piezoelectric ceramic actuators (PPCAs) and compliant mechanisms are attractive for nanopositioning and nanomanipulation due to their ultra-high precision. The way to create and keep a proper and steady connection between both ends of the PPCA and the compliant mechanism is an essential step to achieve such a high accuracy. The connection status affects the initial position of the terminal moving plate, the positioning accuracy and the dynamic performance of the nanopositioning platform, especially during a long-time or high-frequency positioning procedure. This paper presents a novel external preload mechanism and tests it in a 1-degree of freedom (1-DOF) compliant nanopositioning platform. The 1-DOF platform utilizes a parallelogram guiding mechanism and a parallelogram load mechanism to provide a more accurate actual input displacement and output displacement. The simulation results verify the proposed stiffness model and dynamic model of the platform. The values of the preload displacement, actual input displacement and output displacement can be measured by three capacitive sensors during the whole positioning procedure. The test results show the preload characteristics vary with different types or control modes of the PPCA. Some fitting formulas are derived to describe the preload displacement, actual input displacement and output displacement using the nominal elongation signal of the PPCA. With the identification of the preload characteristics, the actual and comprehensive output characteristics of the PPCA can be obtained by the strain gauge sensor (SGS) embedded in the PPCA.
In this paper, a novel rate-dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii (P-I) model is proposed to characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity of piezoelectric actuators. The new model is based on a modified rate-dependent play operator, in which a dynamic envelope function is introduced to replace the input function of the classical play operator. Moreover, a dynamic density function is utilized in the proposed P-I model. The parameters of the proposed model are identified by a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm. Finally, experiments are conducted on a piezo-actuated nanopositioning stage to validate the proposed P-I model under the sinusoidal inputs. The experimental results show that the developed rate-dependent P-I model precisely characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis loops up to 1000 Hz.
Backlash cannot be always avoided in mechanical systems because of wear or looseness. Steady-state vibration may be induced by backlash in closed loop feed drive systems. This paper presents a mathematical model of a servo rotary table, considering the effect of backlash. The accuracy of this model is verified by an experiment. The influences of the parameters, such as position controller gain, velocity controller gain, load and the magnitude of backlash, on steady-state vibration are discussed. The steady-state vibration amplitude increases with the position controller gain, load and the magnitude of backlash. The steady-state vibration frequency increases with the position controller gain and the velocity controller gain, while an increase in load leads to a decrease in the frequency.
The aim of this paper is to present the dynamic analyses of the system involving various damping models. The assumed frequency-dependent damping forces depend on the past history of motion via convolution integrals over some damping kernel functions. By choosing suitable damping kernel functions of frequency-dependent damping model, it may be derived from the familiar viscoelastic materials. A brief review of literature on the choice of available damping models is presented. Both the mode superposition method and Fourier transform method are developed for calculating the dynamic response of the structural systems with various damping models. It is shown that in the case of non-deficient systems with various damping models, the modal analysis with repeated eigenvalues are very similar to the traditional modal analysis used in undamped or viscously damped systems. Also, based on the pseudo-force approach, we transform the original equations of motion with nonzero initial conditions into an equivalent one with zero initial conditions and therefore present a Fourier transform method for the dynamics of structural systems with various damping models. Finally, some case studies are used to show the application and effectiveness of the derived formulas.
To represent a loose lap joint, a beam impacting four springs with gaps is modeled. Modal analysis with base excitation is solved, and time histories of contact points are closely monitored. Using the impulse during steady state response, six influential parameters are studied: damping ratio, contact stiffness, intermediate contact position, gap, excitation amplitude and beam height. For all parameters, the system response is highly controlled by modes with two contacting springs. Each parameter’s effect on system response is presented including unstable regions, unique trend behaviours result. Recommendations for structural designers are also noted.
Hydrostatic guideways are used as an alternative to contact bearings due to high stiffness and high damping in heavy machine tools. To improve the dynamic characteristic of bearing structure, the dynamic modeling of the hydrostatic guidway should be accurately known. This paper presents a “mass-spring-Maxwell” model considering the effects of inertia, squeeze, compressibility and static bearing. To determine the dynamic model coefficients, numerical simulation of different cases between displacement and dynamic force of oil film are performed with fluent code. Simulation results show that hydrostatic guidway can be taken as a linear system when it is subjected to a small oscillation amplitude. Based on a dynamic model and numerical simulation, every dynamic model’s parameters are calculated by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Identification results show that “mass-spring-damper” model is the most appropriate dynamic model of the hydrostatic guidway. This paper provides a reference and preparation for the analysis of the dynamic model of the similar hydrostatic bearings.
The interlaminar defect is a major form of damage in metal layer composite pipes which are widely used in petroleum and chemical industry. In this paper, a Stoneley wave method is presented to detect interlaminar damage in laminated pipe structure. Stoneley wave possesses some good characteristics, such as high energy and large displacement at the interface and non-dispersive in the high-frequency, so the sensitivity of detecting interlaminar damage can be improved and the higher frequency can be used in damage detection compared with Lamb waves. Additionally, as the frequency increases, the wavelength of the Stoneley wave reduces. Thus, its ability to detect small defects at the interface is enhanced. Finite element model of metal layer composite pipe with interlaminar damage is used to simulate wave propagation of Lamb waves and Stoneley wave, respectively. The damage location is calculated by using the Stoneley wave signal obtained from finite element model, and then the results are compared with the actual damage locations. The simulation examples demonstrate that the Stoneley wave method can better identify the interlaminar damage in laminated pipe structure compared with Lamb waves.
A novel adaptive sliding mode control algorithm is derived to deal with seam tracking control problem of welding robotic manipulator, during the process of large-scale structure component welding. The proposed algorithm does not require the precise dynamic model, and is more practical. Its robustness is verified by the Lyapunov stability theory. The analytical results show that the proposed algorithm enables better high-precision tracking performance with chattering-free than traditional sliding mode control algorithm under various disturbances.
Cylinder-crown integrated hydraulic press (CCIHP) is a new press structure. The hemispherical hydraulic cylinder also functions as a main portion of crown, which has lower weight and higher section modulus compared with the conventional hydraulic cylinder and press crown. As a result, the material strength capacity is better utilized. During the engineering design of cylinder-crown integrated structure, in order to increase the fatigue life, structural optimization on the basis of the adaptive macro genetic algorithms (AMGA) is first conducted to both reduce weight and decrease peak stress. It is shown that the magnitude of the maximum principal stress is decreased by 28.6%, and simultaneously the total weight is reduced by 4.4%. Subsequently, strain-controlled fatigue test is carried out, and the stress-strain hysteresis loops and cyclic hardening curve are obtained. Based on linear fit, the fatigue properties are calculated and used for the fatigue life prediction. It is shown that the predicted fatigue life is significantly increased from 157000 to 1070000 cycles after structural optimization. Finally, according to the optimization design, a 6300 kN CCIHP has been manufactured, and priority application has been also suggested.