The purpose of this study was to assess the synergistic effects of exogenously applied proline and glycinebetaine (betaine) in antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification system in mung bean seedlings subjected to salt stress (200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, 48 h). Seven-day-old mung bean seedlings were exposed to salt stress after pre-treatment with proline or betaine. Salt stress caused a sharp increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content in leaves, while the GSH/GSSG ratio and ascorbate (AsA) content decreased significantly. The glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) activities were increased in response to salt stress, while the monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), catalase (CAT) and glyoxalase I (Gly I) activities sharply decreased with an associated increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation level (MDA). Proline or betaine pre-treatment had little influence on non-enzymatic and enzymatic components as compared to those of the untreated control. However, proline or betaine pre-treated salt-stressed seedlings showed an increase in AsA, GSH content, GSH/GSSG ratio and maintained higher activities of APX, DHAR, GR, GST, GPX, CAT, Gly I and Gly II involved in ROS and MG detoxification system as compared to those of the untreated control and mostly also salt-stressed plants with a simultaneous decrease in GSSG content, H2O2 and MDA level. These results together with our previous results suggest that coordinate induction of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system by proline and betaine rendered the plants tolerant to salinity-induced oxidative stress in a synergistic fashion.
A RIL population from two Australian wheats, Lang and CSCR6, was employed to evaluate the genetic variation and to detect QTL associated with dough rheological characters based on DArT and SSR markers and two environmental experiments. It was showed that the higher variation existed in the RIL for dough rheological characters, and so did much more abundant selection potentials that lacked in Chinese current commercial varieties. Nine additive QTLs for dough rheological characters were identified. Of which those for water absorption (WA) were located on chromosome 2A and 5A, stability time (ST) on 4B and 1B, breaking time (BT) on 1B, degree of softening (DS) on 1B, band width (BW) on 2B (two loci), evaluation value (EV) on 1B. And seven epistatic QTLs were screened out, and non-significant variance was found for the interaction between these epistatic QTLs and the environment. Correlation analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive relation between WA and development time (DT), and EV, whereas negatively related to BW. A significantly positive relation existed between DT, ST, BT and EV each other. They were negatively related to mixing tolerance index (MTI) and degree of softening (DS), both had a markedly positive relation.
Phosphorus is one of the essential mineral nutrients required by all living cells. Phosphate mobilization into the plant is a complex process in which the absorption and translocation of this major nutrient are determined largely by the phosphate (Pi) transporters. In this paper, the recent progress on the plant phosphate (Pi) transporter genes, such as the molecular characterizations, expression patterns in response to Pi status, other inorganic nutrients, and the other factors, expression regulations via arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, functional identification approaches, and the gene engineering perspectives on improvement of plant phosphorus nutrition, etc., have been reviewed. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for further elucidation of the molecular mechanism of Pi transportation mediated by Pi transporters and to promote the generation of elite crop germplasms with a significant improvement in phosphorus use efficiency in the future.
This review article is based on different aspects of wheat breeding for drought tolerance. Drought is regarded as one of the most serious threats to agriculture in Pakistan. Therefore, breeding for drought tolerance must be given top priority. Here, we try to study various options available to wheat breeders exploring the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance. The progress made in conventional and non-conventional (molecular) based approaches with potential findings and constraints are reviewed in this article. Equipped with such information, it will be possible for breeders to further explore the mysteries of drought tolerance and to select genotypes with an improved yield under water-deficit conditions.
Seeds of two varieties (PUSA-212 and BG-256) of chickpea (
To inhibit the browning process in fruits of Yali pear, in this paper, antisense gene techniques were used to reduce the expression of
The effects of growth regulators on the respiration metabolism of pear buds during dormant period were studied in this experiment. The results showed that, during early dormant period, the respiration intensity of pear buds was infirm and increased slowly. As the weather became very cold, the respiration intensity rapidly declined, and after that it changed a little. In the later stage of dormant period, the respiration intensity rose rapidly. The maximum value appeared on January 4th, at 0.390 mo1 O2·g-1 FW·min-1, but thereafter declined to its original level. Under natural conditions, three respiratory pathways showed different changes. Pentose phosphate pathway might be the main reason for dormancy release in pear buds. The exogenous gibberellins were more efficient than salicylic acid in increasing the respiration rate. The exogenous SA appeared to play a more important role than exogenous GA3 in phosphopentose pathway. The effect of gibberellins would be more effective than SA in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). The respiration rate of glycolysis was not affected by gibberellins and salicylic acid.
In the present study, we estimated the size of phyllosphere bacterial populations in young and mature leaves from the same plants and also assessed the population abundance on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. We examined eight perennial species naturally occurring in the same area, in Halkidiki (northern Greece). They are
Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C plays pivotal roles in a host of physiologic processes in both animals and plants. Animal PI-PLC is regulated by heterotrimeric G-protein. Plant PI-PLCs are structurally close to the mammalian PI-PLC-ζ isoform, and it is not testified what regulated this isoform enzyme. In this paper, two isoform genes of LdPLC (
To obtain the secreting expression vector, the signal peptide sequence and mature peptide sequence of endoglucanase from
Consumption and processing of allochthonous plant litter by fishes is more common in tropical than temperate streams and rivers. Therefore, aquatic hyphomycetes in water (filtration), leaf litter (bubble chamber incubation), and fecal pellets (direct observation and inoculation to sterile leaf litter) of three dominant fishes belonging to the family Cyprinidae (
The complete sequences of mtDNA D-loops from 362 individuals were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of their lineages. The results indicated that all of the analyzed sequences were differentiated into four clear lineages (A, B, C, and D). Lineages C and D might originate from Lineages B and A, respectively. The genetic diversity of complete mtDNA D-loop of four lineages was very abundant. The 76 bp insertion and the 17 bp deletion were detected in the longest and the shortest sequences, respectively. The 76 bp insertion was a repeat like motif found in many other animals. Lineages C and D were differentiated into two subclades (C1 and C2) and (D1 and D2), respectively. Lineage C might originate from Asia, and Lineage D might originate from Fertile Crescent.
Age, duration and intensity of feed restriction of broiler chickens were studied by L9(34) orthogonal experiment. Broiler production performance and meat color were measured to evaluate the effects of feed restriction and explore the superior FR program. A total of 250 1-day-old Ross 308 chicks were selected and randomly allocated to ten groups, including one feed ad libitum (AL) group and nine feed restriction (FR) groups; each group had 5 pens with 5 chickens each. Broilers (T5D7I90), feed-restricted to 90% from day 5 to day 11, had the highest body weight (BW), carcass weight, eviscerated weight, leg muscle weight and breast muscle weight, as well as muscle ratio. While broilers (T5D14I70), feed-restricted to 70% from day 5 to day 18, had the lowest. Triiodothyronine (T3) and growth hormone (GH) decreased while thyroxine (T4) and the ratio of T4/T3 increased in FR broilers. Feed conversion ratio, abdominal fat ratio, whole eviscerated weight ratio and lightness (
To investigate the metabolism mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine “Yimu Shenghuatang” on dairy cow endometrial cells, the primary cultured endometrial cells in dairy cows were isolated by a collagenase digestion method, and an inflammatory model of the endometrial cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was made. The cells were treated with gradient concentrations of LPS, the cultured supernatants were collected in different periods, and the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that 100 ng·mL-1 LPS was the optimal concentration to induce the inflammation of cultured endometrial cells. The inflammatory endometrial cells were treated with traditional Chinese medicine “Yimu Shenghuatang” and its main components during the period of 24–72 h, and the expression of cytochrome P450 in cow endometrial cells was determined by Western blot. Our result lays a foundation for treating cow endometritis by using traditional Chinese medicines.
This study reports on the multivariate analysis of the vegetation of Hindukush Range in Pakistan, concentrating on the structure and regeneration potential of
The arboreal vegetation was mostly dominated by broad leaved species including
Opium poppy (