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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

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, Volume 8 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
A multi-probe micro-fabrication apparatus based on the friction-induced fabrication method
Zhijiang WU, Chenfei SONG, Jian GUO, Bingjun YU, Linmao QIAN
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 333-339.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0276-4
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A novel multi-probe micro-fabrication apparatus was developed based on the friction-induced fabrication method. The main parts of the apparatus include actuating device, loading system, and control system. With a motorized XY linear stage, the maximum fabrication area of 50 mm × 50 mm can be achieved, and the maximum sliding speed of probes can be as high as 10 mm/s. Through locating steel micro balls into indents array, the preparation of multi-probe array can be realized by a simple and low-cost way. The cantilever was designed as a structure of deformable parallelogram with two beams, by which the fabrication force can be precisely controlled. Combining the friction-induced scanning with selective etching in KOH solution, various micro-patterns were fabricated on Si(100) surface without any masks or exposure. As a low-cost and high efficiency fabrication device, the multi-probe micro-fabrication apparatus may encourage the development of friction-induced fabrication method and shed new light on the texture engineering.

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A rolling 3-UPU parallel mechanism
Zhihuai MIAO, Yan’an YAO, Xianwen KONG
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 340-349.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0282-6
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A novel rolling mechanism is proposed based on a 3-UPU parallel mechanism in this paper. The rolling mechanism is composed of two platforms connected by three UPU (universal-prismatic-universal) serial-chain type limbs. The degree-of-freedom of the mechanism is analyzed using screw theory. Gait analysis and stability analysis are presented in detail. Four rolling modes of the mechanism are discussed and simulated. The feasibility of the rolling mechanism is verified by means of a physical prototype. Finally, its terrain adaptability is enhanced through planning the rolling gaits.

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Analytical dynamic solution of a flexible cable-suspended manipulator
Mahdi BAMDAD
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 350-359.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0271-9
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Cable-suspended manipulators are used in large scale applications with, heavy in weight and long in span cables. It seems impractical to maintain cable assumptions of smaller robots for large scale manipulators. The interactions among the cables, platforms and actuators can fully evaluate the coupled dynamic analysis. The structural flexibility of the cables becomes more pronounced in large manipulators. In this paper, an analytic solution is provided to solve cable vibration. Also, a closed form solution can be adopted to improve the dynamic response to flexibility. The output is provided by the optimal torque generation subject to the actuator limitations in a mechatronic sense. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through simulations.

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A dynamic model of mobile concrete pump boom based on discrete time transfer matrix method
Wu REN, Yunxin WU, Zhaowei ZHANG
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 360-366.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0280-8
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Mobile concrete pump boom is typical multi-body large-scale motion manipulator. Due to posture constantly change in working process, kinematic rule and dynamic characteristic are difficult to solve. A dynamics model of a mobile concrete pump boom is established based on discrete time transfer matrix method (DTTMM). The boom system is divided into sub-structure A and sub-structure B. Sub-structure A is composed by the 1st boom and hydraulic actuator as well as the support. And sub-structure B is consists of the other three booms and corresponding hydraulic actuators. In the model, the booms and links are regarded as rigid elements and the hydraulic cylinders are equivalent to spring-damper. The booms are driven by the controllable hydraulic actuators. The overall dynamic equation and transfer matrix of the model can be assembled by sub-structures A and B. To get a precise result, step size and integration parameters are studied then. Next the tip displacement is calculated and compared with the result of ADAMS software. The displacement and rotation angle curves of the proposed method fit well with the ADAMS model. Besides it is convenient in modeling and saves time. So it is suitable for mobile concrete pump boom real-time monitoring and dynamic analysis. All of these provide reference to boom optimize and engineering application of such mechanisms.

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A new proof of Honeycomb Conjecture by fractal geometry methods
Tong ZHANG, Kai DING
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 367-370.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0273-7
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Based on fractal geometry, we put forward a concise and straightforward method to prove Honeycomb Conjecture—a classical mathematic problem. Hexagon wins the most efficient covering unit in the two- dimensional space, compared with the other two covering units—triangle and square. From this point of view, honeycomb is treated as a hierarchical fractal structure that fully fills the plane. Therefore, the total side length and area are easily calculated and from the results, the covering efficiency of each possible unit is provided quantitatively.

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Hierarchical fractal structure of perfect single-layer graphene
T. Zhang, K. Ding
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 371-382.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0279-1
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The atomic lattice structure of perfect single-layer graphene that can actually be regarded as a kind of hierarchical fractal structure from the perspective of fractal geometry was studied for the first time. Three novel and special discoveries on hierarchical fractal structure and sets were unveiled upon examination of the regular crystal lattices of the single-layer graphene. The interior fractal-type structure was discovered to be the fifth space-filling curve from physical realm. Two efficient methods for calculating the fractal dimension of this fresh member was also provided. The outer boundary curve had a fractal dimension equal to one, and a multi-fractal structure from a naturally existing material was found for the first time. A series of strict self-similar hexagons comprised a rotating fractal set. These hexagons slewed at a constant counterclockwise angle α of 19.1° when observed from one level to the next higher level. From the perspective of fractal geometry, these pioneering discoveries added three new members to the existing regular fractal structures and sets. A fundamental example of a multi-fractal structure was also presented.

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A low power consumption control scheme: application to a piezostack-based active mount
T. LOUKIL, O. BAREILLE, M. N. ICHCHOU, M. HADDAR
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 383-389.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0274-6
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Piezostack-based active mounts have shown great efficiency for vibration control in a wide frequency range. In this paper, we investigate the performances of the global semi-active control strategy presented by Ichchou et al. [1] for a control system consisting of an active mount and a supported mass. The control strategy allows extracting vibrations energy of the supported mass, storing it in accumulators to be reused for powering in part the actuators (two piezostacks). Consequently, energy needs are reduced versus good control performances comparable to those of the active control based on the negative velocity feedback. The performances of the controller are evaluated in both frequency (transmitted force) and time (acceleration) domains which show that vibrations of the supported mass due to base excitations are efficiently attenuated with the proposed law. An energetic analysis confirms the reduced energy requirement compared to the active scheme.

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Discussion on back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor compact design techniques
Lei HUO, Huoxing LIU
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 390-400.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0278-2
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Design a small flow back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor in the aviation turbocharger, the compressor is compact structure, small axial length, light weighted. Stationary parts have a great influence on their overall performance decline. Therefore, the stationary part of the back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor should pay full attention to the diffuser, bend, return vane and volute design. Volute also impact downstream return vane, making the flow in circumferential direction is not uniformed, and several blade angle of attack is drastically changed in downstream of the volute with the airflow can not be rotated to required angle. Loading of high-pressure rotor blades change due to non-uniformed of flow in circumferential direction, which makes individual blade load distribution changed, and affected blade passage load decreased to reduce the capability of work, the tip low speed range increases.

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Boundary conditions for axisymmetric piezoelectric cylinder
Baosheng ZHAO, Di WU, Xi CHEN
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 401-408.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0272-8
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For axisymmetric piezoelectric cylinder, the reciprocal theorem and the axisymmetric general solution of piezoelasticity are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all orders for the cylinder of general edge geometry and loadings. A decay analysis technique developed by Gregory and Wan is converted into necessary conditions on the end-data of axisymmetric piezoelectric circular cylinder, and the rapidly decaying solution is established. The prescribed end-data of the circle cylinder must satisfy these conditions in order that they could generate a decaying state within the cylinder. When stress and mixed conditions are imposed on the end of cylinder, these decaying state conditions for the case of axisymmetric deformation of piezoelectric cylinder are derived explicitly. They are then used for the correct formulation of boundary conditions for the theory solution (or the interior solution) of axisymmetric piezoelectric cylinder. The results of the present paper enable us to establish a set of correct boundary conditions, most of which are obtained for the first time.

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An investigation into the vibration of harmonic drive systems
M. Masoumi, H. Alimohammadi
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 409-419.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0275-5
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Harmonic drive systems are precise and specific transmission gear systems which are beneficial in terms of the high transmission ratio and almost zero backlash. These inherent and spectacular properties result in using this mechanism in robotic and space sciences where the precision and lightwieght play an important role. This paper presents a vibration analysis of harmonic drive systems using the shell theory. Equations of vibration for the flexspline and the circular spline of the system are derived and used to find the natural frequencies for both parts and, moreover, vibration response of the system under the operating condition is calculated. Also, obtained vibration equations are utilized to study the effects of different involved parameters such as the geometry of the flexspline and its gear tooth, eccentricity, and unbalancing on the vibrational behavior of the system.

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Experimental and computational validation of a scaled train tunnel model using modal analysis
Janice B. D’SOUZA, Sangarapillai KANAPATHIPILLAI
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 420-428.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0281-7
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Acoustic engineers are faced with the challenge of minimising reverberation time in their designs so as to contribute to the health and well-being of those traveling by train and those on the platforms. Although the problem is easy to identify, it is not as simple to solve. The acoustical environment of a train tunnel is complex, with a variety of noise contributing factors such as train announcements, speech of commuters, ventilation systems, electrical equipment and wheel and rail noise. As a result, there is some difficulty in modeling the complete acoustic environment with computational or acoustic first principles. In this study, an experimental rig was constructed to model the acoustic behavior within a tunnel. The modal properties for the 300 Hz to 1500 Hz range, including resonances and mode shapes were identified and were shown to successfully correspond to theoretical results and a computational model created in COMSOL using Finite Element Analysis.

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Application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and cuckoo optimization algorithm for analyzing electro chemical machining process
Reza TEIMOURI, Hamed SOHRABPOOR
Front Mech Eng. 2013, 8 (4): 429-442.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0277-3
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Electrochemical machining process (ECM) is increasing its importance due to some of the specific advantages which can be exploited during machining operation. The process offers several special privileges such as higher machining rate, better accuracy and control, and wider range of materials that can be machined. Contribution of too many predominate parameters in the process, makes its prediction and selection of optimal values really complex, especially while the process is programmized for machining of hard materials. In the present work in order to investigate effects of electrolyte concentration, electrolyte flow rate, applied voltage and feed rate on material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) have been used for creation predictive models based on experimental observations. Then the ANFIS 3D surfaces have been plotted for analyzing effects of process parameters on MRR and SR. Finally, the cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA) was used for selection solutions in which the process reaches maximum material removal rate and minimum surface roughness simultaneously. Results indicated that the ANFIS technique has superiority in modeling of MRR and SR with high prediction accuracy. Also, results obtained while applying of COA have been compared with those derived from confirmatory experiments which validate the applicability and suitability of the proposed techniques in enhancing the performance of ECM process.

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