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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Evaluation of regenerative braking based on single-pedal control for electric vehicles
Wei LIU1, Xintian LIU1(), Yansong WANG1, Hongzhong QI2
1. School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China
2. Automotive Engineering Institute, Guangzhou Automobile Group Co. Ltd., Guangzhou 511434, China
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Abstract

More than 25% of vehicle kinetic energy can be recycled under urban driving cycles. A single-pedal control strategy for regenerative braking is proposed to further enhance energy efficiency. Acceleration and deceleration are controlled by a single pedal, which alleviates driving intensity and prompts energy recovery. Regenerative braking is theoretically analyzed based on the construction of the single-pedal system, vehicle braking dynamics, and energy conservation law. The single-pedal control strategy is developed by considering daily driving conditions, and a single-pedal simulation model is established. Typical driving cycles are simulated to verify the effectiveness of the single-pedal control strategy. A dynamometer test is conducted to confirm the validity of the simulation model. Results show that using the single-pedal control strategy for electric vehicles can effectively improve the energy recovery rate and extend the driving range under the premise of ensuring safety while braking. The study lays a technical foundation for the optimization of regenerative braking systems and development of single-pedal control systems, which are conducive to the promotion and popularization of electric vehicles.

Keywords electric vehicle      single-pedal control      regenerative braking      co-simulation      dynamometer test     
Corresponding Authors: Xintian LIU   
Just Accepted Date: 24 June 2019   Online First Date: 26 July 2019   
 Cite this article:   
Wei LIU,Xintian LIU,Yansong WANG, et al. Evaluation of regenerative braking based on single-pedal control for electric vehicles[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 26 July 2019. [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1007/s11465-019-0546-x.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-019-0546-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y/V/I/0
Fig.1  Braking strength distribution of typical urban driving cycles.
Fig.2  Braking energy recovery system. (a) Conventional energy recovery; (b) single-pedal energy recovery. AP: Accelerator pedal; BP: Brake pedal.
Fig.3  Construction of the single-pedal control system. DC: Direct current; BP: Brake pedal; EVP: Electric vacuum pump; ABS: Anti-brake system; OBC: On-board charger; BMS: Battery management system; PMSM: Permanent magnet synchronous motor; HV: High voltage; LV: Low voltage.
Fig.4  Control strategies of different driving modes. (a) Conventional control; (b) single-pedal control.
Pedal travel Driving and braking conditions
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 20 40 60 80 100 120
0% C R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
5% A C R R R R R R R R R R R R R
10% A A C R R R R R R R R R R R R
15% A A A C R R R R R R R R R R R
20% A A A A C R R R R R R R R R R
25% A A A A A C R R R R R R R R R
30% A A A A A A C C C C C C C C C
35% A A A A A A A C C C C C C C C
40% A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
60% A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
80% A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
Max A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
Tab.1  Single-pedal travel allocation varying with different vehicle velocity (in km/h)
Fig.5  Vehicle deceleration at different pedal travel.
Fig.6  Deceleration generated by regenerative braking.
Fig.7  Single-pedal control strategy model.
Fig.8  Flowchart of single-pedal control. MIN: Minimum.
Parameter Value
(Length × width × height)/mm 4337 × 1825 × 1637
Wheelbase/mm 2560
Curb mass m/kg 1667
Rolling resistance coefficient f 0.008
Windward A/m2 2.54
Final ratio i0 9.07
Wind resistance coefficient CD 0.32
Tire specification 215/55 R18
Tab.2  Basic parameters of the vehicle
Component Parameter Value
Battery Capacity/(kW·h) 52
Nominal voltage/V 350
SoC working range 5%–95%
Motor Rated and peak speed/(r·min1) 4340, 12000
Rated and peak power/kW 50, 120
Rated and peak torque/(N·m) 110, 240
Auxiliary Average power/W 200
Tab.3  Performance parameters of the powertrain
Fig.9  Vehicle simulation model.
Fig.10  Simulation results of conventional braking (30 km/h). (a) Vehicle simulation result; (b) motor simulation result.
Fig.11  Simulation results of conventional braking (60 km/h). (a) Vehicle simulation result; (b) motor simulation result.
Initial braking velocity/(km·h?1) Braking energy/kJ Recovered energy/kJ Energy recovery efficiency
30 64.97 51.98 80.01%
60 251.45 218.70 86.98%
Tab.4  Regenerative braking simulation under conventional braking conditions
Fig.12  Simulation results under NEDC. (a) Vehicle simulation result; (b) motor simulation result.
Fig.13  Simulation results under WLTC. (a) Vehicle simulation result; (b) motor simulation result.
Fig.14  Battery simulation results using various control strategies. Changes in battery SoC under (a) NEDC and (b) WLTC.
Control strategy Driving range/km Total energy consumption/kJ Recovered energy/kJ Recovery rate
No RBS 256.32 126497
Parallel 279.24 137699 14259 10.36%
Series 299.23 148014 27576 18.63%
Single-pedal 319.61 158269 41340 26.12%
Tab.5  Comparison of energy recovery using different control strategies under NEDC
Control strategy Driving range/km Total energy consumption/kJ Recovered energy/kJ Recovery rate
No RBS 220.71 156628
Parallel 241.60 171095 14994 8.76%
Series 259.04 183809 28206 15.35%
Single-pedal 272.43 195275 40554 20.77%
Tab.6  Comparison of energy recovery using different control strategies under WLTC
Fig.15  Dynamometer test.
Fig.15  Dynamometer test.
Fig.16  Test data acquisition.
Fig.16  Test data acquisition.
Fig.17  Results of the dynamometer test.
Fig.17  Results of the dynamometer test.
NEDC Driving range/km Consumed energy/kJ Recovered energy/kJ Energy recovery rate
Simulation 319.61 158269 41340 26.12%
Test 312.03 158812 40722 25.64%
Tab.7  Comparison of simulation and test data on energy recovery
NEDC Driving range/km Consumed energy/kJ Recovered energy/kJ Energy recovery rate
Simulation 319.61 158269 41340 26.12%
Test 312.03 158812 40722 25.64%
Tab.7  Comparison of simulation and test data on energy recovery
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