For multicellular organisms, cell-cell communication is essential to numerous biological processes. Drawing upon the latest development of single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), high-resolution transcriptomic data have deepened our understanding of cellular phenotype heterogeneity and composition of complex tissues, which enables systematic cell-cell communication studies at a single-cell level. We first summarize a common workflow of cell-cell communication study using scRNA-seq data, which often includes data preparation, construction of communication networks, and result validation. Two common strategies taken to uncover cell-cell communications are reviewed, e.g., physically vicinal structure-based and ligand-receptor interaction-based one. To conclude, challenges and current applications of cell-cell communication studies at a single-cell resolution are discussed in details and future perspectives are proposed.
Cytokines are secreted by various cell types and act as critical mediators in many physiological processes, including immune response and tumor progression. Cytokines production is precisely and timely regulated by multiple mechanisms at different levels, ranging from transcriptional to post-transcriptional and posttranslational processes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), a potent immunosuppressive protein, was first described as a transcription factor in monocytes treated with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and subsequently found to possess intrinsic RNase and deubiquitinase activities. MCPIP1 tightly regulates cytokines expression via various functions. Furthermore, cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1B) and MCP-1 and inflammatory cytokines inducer lipopolysaccharide (LPS) strongly induce MCPIP1 expression. Mutually regulated MCPIP1 and cytokines form a complicated network in the tumor environment. In this review, we summarize how MCPIP1 and cytokines reciprocally interact and elucidate the effect of the network formed by these components in cancer-related immunity with aim of exploring potential clinical benefits of their mutual regulation.
Tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins are important effectors of innate immunity against viral infections. Here we identified TRIM35 as a regulator of TRAF3 activation. Deficiency in or inhibition of TRIM35 suppressed the production of type I interferon (IFN) in response to viral infection. Trim35-deficient mice were more susceptible to influenza A virus (IAV) infection than were wild-type mice. TRIM35 promoted the RIG-Imediated signaling by catalyzing Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 and the subsequent formation of a signaling complex with VISA and TBK1. IAV PB2 polymerase countered the innate antiviral immune response by impeding the Lys63-linked polyubiquitination and activation of TRAF3. TRIM35 mediated Lys48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of IAV PB2, thereby antagonizing its suppression of TRAF3 activation. Our in vitro and in vivo findings thus reveal novel roles of TRIM35, through catalyzing Lys63-or Lys48-linked polyubiquitination, in RIG-I antiviral immunity and mechanism of defense against IAV infection.