Cell reprogramming in vitro to generate induced pluripotent stem cells stimulates flourishing of regenerative medicine and comes into focus in decades. Meanwhile, it is still not well known whether cell reprogramming induced or promoted by factors in vivo directly favors tissue regeneration. In this issue, Tang and colleagues report that cocktail of small chemical compounds promoting cell reprogramming, which was identifi ed through in vitro assay, was found to be able to enh[Detail] ...
Research on innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has recently been a fast paced topic of immunological research. As ILCs are able to produce signature Th cytokine, ILCs have garnered considerable attention and have been described to represent the innate counterpart of the CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. The development and function of ILCs are precisely regulated by a network of crucial transcription factors, which are also involved in the development or differentiation of conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and T cells. In this review, we will summarize the key transcriptional regulators and their functions through each phases of ILC development. With the phase of ILC lineage commitment, we will focus in particular on the roles of the transcription regulators Id2 and GATA-3, which in collaboration with other transcriptional factors, are critically involved in the generation of ILC fate determined progenitors. Once an ILC lineage has been established, several other transcription factors are required for the specification and functional regulation of distinct mature ILC subsets. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions and regulatory mechanisms mediated by these transcription factors will help us to further understand how ILCs exert their helper-like functions and bridge the innate and adaptive immunity.
The 26S proteasome at the center of the ubiquitinproteasome system (UPS) is essential for virtually all cellular processes of eukaryotes. A common misconception about the proteasome is that, once made, it remains as a static and uniform complex with spontaneous and constitutive activity for protein degradation. Recent discoveries have provided compelling evidence to support the exact opposite insomuch as the 26S proteasome undergoes dynamic and reversible phosphorylation under a variety of physiopathological conditions. In this review, we summarize the history and current understanding of proteasome phosphorylation, and advocate the idea of targeting proteasome kinases/phosphatases as a new strategy for clinical interventions of several human diseases.
Tissue damage induces cells into reprogramming-like cellular state, which contributes to tissue regeneration. However, whether factors promoting the cell reprogramming favor tissue regeneration remains elusive. Here we identified combination of small chemical compounds including drug cocktails robustly promoting in vitro cell reprogramming. We then administrated the drug cocktails to mice with acute liver injuries induced by partial hepatectomy or toxic treatment. Our results demonstrated that the drug cocktails which promoted cell reprogramming in vitro improved liver regeneration and hepatic function in vivo after acute injuries. The underlying mechanism could be that expression of pluripotent genes activated after injury is further upregulated by drug cocktails. Thus our study offers proof-of-concept evidence that cocktail of clinical compounds improving cell reprogramming favors tissue recovery after acute damages, which is an attractive strategy for regenerative purpose.