This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the non-quality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.
Productivity has often been cited as a key factor in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) performance, and actions to increase it are said to improve profitability and the wage earning capacity of employees. Improving productivity is seen as a key issue for survival and success in the long term of a manufacturing system. The purpose of this paper is to make a model and analysis of the productivity variables of FMS. This study was performed by different approaches viz. interpretive structural modelling (ISM), structural equation modelling (SEM), graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA) and a cross-sectional survey within manufacturing firms in India. ISM has been used to develop a model of productivity variables, and then it has been analyzed. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are powerful statistical techniques. CFA is carried by SEM. EFA is applied to extract the factors in FMS by the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) software and confirming these factors by CFA through analysis of moment structures (AMOS 20) software. The twenty productivity variables are identified through literature and four factors extracted, which involves the productivity of FMS. The four factors are people, quality, machine and flexibility. SEM using AMOS 20 was used to perform the first order four-factor structures. GTMA is a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) methodology used to find intensity/quantification of productivity variables in an organization. The FMS productivity index has purposed to intensify the factors which affect FMS.
In this paper, a typical 3-degree of freedom (3-DOF) translational parallel kinematic machine (PKM) is studied and analyzed whose tool platform has only translations along X-, Y- and Z-axes. It consists of three limbs, each of which have arm and forearm with prismatic-revolute-revolute-revolute (PRRR) joints. Inverse kinematics analysis is carried out to find the slider coordinates and joint angles for a given position of tool platform. Stiffness modeling is done based on the compliance matrices of arm and forearm of each limb. Using the stiffness modeling the variations of minimum and maximum translational stiffness in the workspace are analyzed. For various architectural parameters of the 3-DOF PKM the tendency of variations on the minimum and maximum stiffness over the entire workspace is studied; and also the deflections of the tool platform along X, Y, and Z directions with respect to various forces are presented.
Rails endure frequent dynamic loads from the passing trains for supporting trains and guiding wheels. The accumulated stress concentrations will cause the plastic deformation of rail towards generating corrugations, contact fatigue cracks and also other defects, resulting in more dangerous status even the derailment risks. So the rail grinding technology has been invented with rotating grinding stones pressed on the rail with defects removal. Such rail grinding works are directed by experiences rather than scientifically guidance, lacking of flexible and scientific operating methods. With grinding control unit holding the grinding stones, the rail grinding process has the characteristics not only the surface grinding but also the running railway vehicles. First of all, it’s important to analyze the contact length between the grinding stone and the rail, because the contact length is a critical parameter to measure the grinding capabilities of stones. Moreover, it’s needed to build up models of railway vehicle unit bonded with the grinding stone to represent the rail grinding car. Therefore the theoretical model for contact length is developed based on the geometrical analysis. And the calculating models are improved considering the grinding car’s dynamic behaviors during the grinding process. Eventually, results are obtained based on the models by taking both the operation parameters and the structure parameters into the calculation, which are suitable for revealing the process of rail grinding by combining the grinding mechanism and the railway vehicle systems.
The analytical model of residual stress in orthogonal cutting proposed by Jiann is an important tool for residual stress prediction in orthogonal cutting. In application of the model, a problem of low precision of the surface residual stress prediction is found. By theoretical analysis, several shortages of Jiann’s model are picked out, including: inappropriate boundary conditions, unreasonable calculation method of thermal stress, ignorance of stress constraint and cyclic loading algorithm. These shortages may directly lead to the low precision of the surface residual stress prediction. To eliminate these shortages and make the prediction more accurate, an improved model is proposed. In this model, a new contact boundary condition between tool and workpiece is used to make it in accord with the real cutting process; an improved calculation method of thermal stress is adopted; a stress constraint is added according to the volume-constancy of plastic deformation; and the accumulative effect of the stresses during cyclic loading is considered. At last, an experiment for measuring residual stress in cutting AISI 1045 steel is conducted. Also, Jiann’s model and the improved model are simulated under the same conditions with cutting experiment. The comparisons show that the surface residual stresses predicted by the improved model is closer to the experimental results than the results predicted by Jiann’s model.
Robustness in most of the literature is associated with min-max or min-max regret criteria. However, these criteria of robustness are conservative and therefore recently new criteria called, lexicographic α-robust method has been introduced in literature which defines the robust solution as a set of solutions whose quality or jth largest cost is not worse than the best possible jth largest cost in all scenarios. These criteria might be significant for robust optimization of single objective optimization problems. However, in real optimization problems, two or more than two conflicting objectives are desired to optimize concurrently and solution of multi objective optimization problems exists in the form of a set of solutions called Pareto solutions and from these solutions it might be difficult to decide which Pareto solution can satisfy min-max, min-max regret or lexicographic α-robust criteria by considering multiple objectives simultaneously. Therefore, lexicographic α-robust method which is a recently introduced method in literature is extended in the current research for Pareto solutions. The proposed method called Pareto lexicographic α-robust approach can define Pareto lexicographic α-robust solutions from different scenarios by considering multiple objectives simultaneously. A simple example and an application of the proposed method on a simple problem of multi objective optimization of simple assembly line balancing problem with task time uncertainty is presented to get their robust solutions. The presented method can be significant to implement on different multi objective robust optimization problems containing uncertainty.
Residual stresses generated in cutting process have important influences on workpiece performance. The paper presents a method of theoretical analysis in order to explicate the formation mechanism of residual stresses in cutting. An important conclusion is drawn that the accumulated plastic strain is the main factor which determines the nature and the magnitude of surface residual stresses in the workpiece. On the basis of the analytical model for residual stress, a series of simulations for residual stress prediction during cutting AISI 1045 steel are implemented in order to obtain the influences of cutting speed, depth of cut and tool edge radius on surface residual stress in the workpiece. And these influences are explained from the perspective of formation mechanism of residual stress in cutting. The conclusions have good applicability and can be used to guide the parameters selection in actual production.
An analysis has been performed to study the problem of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) squeeze flow of an electrically conducting fluid between two infinite, parallel disks. The analytical methods called Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) and Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) have been used to solve nonlinear differential equations. It has been attempted to show the capabilities and wide-range applications of the proposed methods in comparison with a type of numerical analysis as Boundary Value Problem (BVP) in solving this problem. Also, the velocity fields have been computed and shown graphically for various values of physical parameters. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of squeeze Reynolds number, Hartmann number and the suction/injection parameter on the velocity field. Furthermore, the results reveal that HAM and HPM are very effective and convenient.
In this study, the stress concentration factors (SCF) in cross-and-angle-ply laminated composite plates as well as in isotropic plates with single circular holes subjected to uniaxial loading is studied. A quadrilateral finite element of four-node with 32 degrees of freedom at each node, previously developed for the bending and mechanical buckling of laminated composite plates, is used to evaluate the stress distribution in laminated composite plates with central circular holes. Based up on the classical plate theory, the present finite element is a combination of a linear isoparametric membrane element and a high precision rectangular Hermitian element. The numerical results obtained by the present element compare favorably with those obtained by the analytic approaches published in literature. It is observed that the obtained results are very close to the reference results, which demonstrates the accuracy of the present element. Additionally, to determine the first ply failure (FPF) of laminated plate, several failure criterions are employed. Finally, to show the effect of