The test on the model with data collected from two years’ field experiments revealed an ability to satisfactorily simulate crop parameters such as LAI, biomass accumulation and partitioning, yield, and variables influencing crop growth and development as nitrogen uptake by crops and partitioning in different organs, and dynamics of soil water and nitrogen including infiltration and leaching. With the model, crop yield, water use efficiency (WUE), nitrogen use efficiency (NYE) and water-nitrogen leaching at specific soil layers under various water and nitrogen management practices were simulated to provide data used as references for designing sustainable nitrogen and water management practices.
The outputs of the simulated experiment with various treatments of irrigation and nitrogen application indicated that crop yield was closely related to water and nitrogen application, crop water use was positively related to irrigation amount, and nitrogen fertilization could improve the crop water use and WUE within certain limits. This is a valuable evidence to be considered in water-saving farming. Nitrogen uptake had a positive relation to nitrogen application, while irrigation to some extent improved its uptake by crops and hence increased NYE. Additionally, irrigation and fertilization had great effects on nitrogen leaching. Thus, in order to improve WUE and NYE, the model showed how nitrogen application and irrigation should be well coordinated.
Yunnan is one of the largest centers of genetic diversity in the world. Allele size of microsatellites associated with phenotypic traits of rice landraces in Yunnan, Southwest China, was investigated based on 20 SSR markers and 23 phenotypic traits, as well as eight mineral elements in brown rice within the core collection of 629 accessions; and there was a significant correlation for 182 (
A multiplex PCR assay system was developed for the detection of
cDNA library of wheat near isogenic line
Some changes in color and morphology of
A novel strain of
Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and spore density was investigated in 20 desert plants (dominant or common species) collected from different locations of Mu Us Sandy Land of China. We observed three mycorrhizal types including Arum-type,Paris-type, and an intermediate type among the plants. Another type of potentially beneficial fungi associated with roots of all species was also observed, namely, dark septate endophytic fungi (DSEF). Of the 20 sample plants examined, all species were coinfected by the two target fungi (Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization of
The herbicidal mechanism of the components extracted from
Through the outdoor potted plant trials, the allelopathic potential of
The practices with low clippings production to save time, money, or landfill space, were favored by turf managers. Understanding the responses of Kentucky bluegrass (
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), characterized by being able to differentiate into various types of cells, are generally regarded as the most promising sources for cell replacement therapies. However, as typical PSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are still far away from human clinics so far due to ethical issues and immune rejection response. One way to avoid such problems is to use stem cells derived from autologous somatic cells. Up to date, PSCs could be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent state with approaches including somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), fusion with stem cells, coculture with cells’ extracts, and induction with defined factors. Among these, through reprogramming somatic cells directly by retroviral transduction of transcription factors, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been successfully generated in both mouse and human recently. These iPS cells shared similar morphology and growth properties to ESCs, could express ESCs marker genes, and could produce adult or germline-competent chimaeras and differentiate into a variety of cell types, including germ cells. Moreover, with iPS technique, patient specific PSCs could be derived more easily from handful somatic cells in human without immune rejection responses innately connected to ESCs. Consequently, generation of iPS cells would be of great help to further understand disease mechanisms, drug screening, and cell transplantation therapies as well. In summary, the recent progress in the study of cell reprogramming for the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, some existing problems, and research perspectives were suggested.
In order to investigate the immunomodulatory effects and the mechanism of a Chinese herbal medicine,
Ecological studies were carried out in the remaining habitat for medaka (
A total of 54 female Wistar rats were allotted to nine treatments by weight and fed basal diet or diets containing Se of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, or 0.20 mg?kg-1 diet provided with either Se yeast or sodium selenite for 10 days. The results showed the following: (1) Selenium yeast had better effects compared with sodium selenite on increasing serum superoxide dismutase activities (
Phosphate (Pi) plays important roles in growth, development, bone mineralization, energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, cell signaling, and acid–base regulation. The rate of intestinal absorption of Pi is a major determinant of Pi homeostasis. The type IIb sodium-dependent Pi cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) is responsible for intestinal Pi absorption. Many physiological factors regulate the rate of Pi absorption via modulating the expression of NaPi-IIb in the intestine. In this review, we summarize the role of these factors in the regulation of NaPi-IIb expression in the intestine.