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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2020, Vol. 15 Issue (2) : 240-255
Two-sided ultrasonic surface rolling process of aeroengine blades based on on-machine noncontact measurement
Shulei YAO1, Xian CAO1, Shuang LIU1(), Congyang GONG2, Kaiming ZHANG1, Chengcheng ZHANG2, Xiancheng ZHANG1()
1. Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety (Ministry of Education), East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
2. AECC Commercial Aircraft Engine Co., Ltd., Shanghai Engineering Research Center for Commercial Aircraft Engine, Shanghai 201108, China
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As crucial parts of an aeroengine, blades are vulnerable to damage from long-term operation in harsh environments. The ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP) is a novel surface treatment technique that can highly improve the mechanical behavior of blades. During secondary machining, the nominal blade model cannot be used for secondary machining path generation due to the deviation between the actual and nominal blades. The clamping error of the blade also affects the precision of secondary machining. This study presents a two-sided USRP (TS-USRP) machining for aeroengine blades on the basis of on-machine noncontact measurement. First, a TS-USRP machining system for blade is developed. Second, a 3D scanning system is used to obtain the point cloud of the blade, and a series of point cloud processing steps is performed. A local point cloud automatic extraction algorithm is introduced to extract the point cloud of the strengthened region of the blade. Then, the tool path is designed on the basis of the extracted point cloud. Finally, an experiment is conducted on an actual blade, with results showing that the proposed method is effective and efficient.

Keywords aeroengine blades      on-machine noncontact measurement      point cloud processing      path planning      surface strengthening     
Corresponding Author(s): Shuang LIU,Xiancheng ZHANG   
Just Accepted Date: 26 February 2020   Online First Date: 31 March 2020    Issue Date: 25 May 2020
 Cite this article:   
Shulei YAO,Xian CAO,Shuang LIU, et al. Two-sided ultrasonic surface rolling process of aeroengine blades based on on-machine noncontact measurement[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2020, 15(2): 240-255.
Fig.1  Structure of the blade.
Fig.2  Source of machining errors. (a) Manufacturing error of the blade; (b) clamping error of the blade.
Fig.3  TS-USRP machining of the blade based on OMNCM.
Fig.4  Principle of USRP.
Fig.5  Blade TS-USRP machine tool system.
Fig.6  Principle of OMNCM.
Fig.7  Scanning a single blade. (a) one side of the blade; (b) another side of the blade; (c) registration of the point cloud of the entire blade.
Fig.8  Scanning the blade, fixture and chuck as a whole. (a) One side of the parts; (b) another side of the parts; (c) registration of the point cloud of the parts.
Fig.9  Transformation of the point cloud coordinate system.
Fig.10  Processing of the LE and TE. (a) Missing portion of the blade edge; (b) blade edge after hole filling.
Fig.11  Point cloud processing.
Fig.12  Extraction of the blade local region point cloud.
Fig.13  Extraction of the circular area point cloud.
Fig.14  Tool motion modes. (a) Longitudinal motion; (b) transverse motion.
Fig.15  Point cloud fitting and path planning. (a) Local region point cloud; (b) point cloud projection and meshing; (c) point cloud fitting; (d) path planning of the local region.
Fig.16  Principle of a TS-USRP machine tool system.
Fig.17  Calculation of blade rotation angle.
Fig.18  Calculation of thickness.
Fig.19  Equipment of the blade TS-USRP machine tool.
Fig.20  Special fixture of the blade.
Fig.21  Calibration of the 3D scanner.
Fig.22  Spraying developer and pasting marked points.
Fig.23  OMNCM process.
Fig.24  Raw point cloud obtained through OMNCM.
Fig.25  Processed point cloud of the blade.
Fig.26  Best fit alignment of the measured blade profile and nominal blade.
>= Min <Max Points %
−35.6999 −30.0474 7 0.0007
−30.0474 −24.3949 14 0.0014
−24.3949 −18.7424 23 0.0022
−18.7424 −13.0900 12 0.0012
−13.0900 −7.4375 19 0.0018
−7.4375 −1.7850 1215 0.1175
−1.7850 1.7850 1032822 99.8744
1.7850 7.4375 6 0.0006
7.4375 13.0900 1 0.0001
13.0900 18.7424 0 0.0000
18.7424 24.3949 0 0.0000
24.3949 30.0474 0 0.0000
30.0474 35.6999 2 0.0002
Tab.1  Deviation distribution of the best fit alignment
Best fit alignment deviation index Deviation/mm
Max. upper deviation 32.4411
Max. lower deviation −35.6999
Average deviation (?0.1954, 0.1954)
Standard deviation 0.3321
Tab.2  Best fit alignment results
Fig.27  TS-USRP strengthening of the blade local region. (a) Local region to be strengthened; (b) point cloud of the local region; (c) point cloud fitting. d machining path planning; (e) TS-USRP machining of the local region; (f) local region after TS-USRP strengthening.
Fig.28  Result of the strengthened blade.
Fig.29  Surface roughness measurement.
Fig.30  Surface roughness of before and after the strengthening.
Fig.31  (a) Strengthened region using the blade model to generate the machining path; (b) strengthened region using the proposed path generation method.
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