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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2019, Vol. 14 Issue (1) : 47-64     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-018-0516-8
REVIEW ARTICLE
A brief review on key technologies in the battery management system of electric vehicles
Kailong LIU1, Kang LI1(), Qiao PENG2, Cheng ZHANG3
1. School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queen’s University Belfast, BT9 5AH Belfast, UK
2. School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
3. IDL, Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL Coventry, UK
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Abstract

Batteries have been widely applied in many high-power applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, where a suitable battery management system (BMS) is vital in ensuring safe and reliable operation of batteries. This paper aims to give a brief review on several key technologies of BMS, including battery modelling, state estimation and battery charging. First, popular battery types used in EVs are surveyed, followed by the introduction of key technologies used in BMS. Various battery models, including the electric model, thermal model and coupled electro-thermal model are reviewed. Then, battery state estimations for the state of charge, state of health and internal temperature are comprehensively surveyed. Finally, several key and traditional battery charging approaches with associated optimization methods are discussed.

Keywords battery management system      battery modelling      battery state estimation      battery charging     
Corresponding Author(s): Kang LI   
Just Accepted Date: 12 February 2018   Online First Date: 29 March 2018    Issue Date: 30 November 2018
 Cite this article:   
Kailong LIU,Kang LI,Qiao PENG, et al. A brief review on key technologies in the battery management system of electric vehicles[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2019, 14(1): 47-64.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-018-0516-8
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y2019/V14/I1/47
Battery type Service life/cycle Nominal voltage/V Energy density/(W·h·kg?1) Power density/(W·kg?1) Charging efficiency/% Self-discharge rate/(%·month?1) Charging temperature/oC Discharging temperature/oC
Li-ion battery 600?3000 3.2?3.7 100?270 250?680 80?90 3?10 0 to 45 ?20 to 60
Lead acid battery 200?300 2.0 30?50 180 50?95 5 -20 to 50 ?20 to 50
NiCd battery 1000 1.2 50?80 150 70?90 20 0 to 45 ?20 to 65
NiMH battery 300?600 1.2 60?120 250?1000 65 30 0 to 45 ?20 to 65
Tab.1  Popular types of battery in EVs
Fig.1  The relation of key technologies in the BMS
Fig.2  Three classifications of battery modelling
Fig.3  Typical framework of battery equivalent circuit model
Battery type Charging performance
Li-ion 1) High temperature can improve charging speed but damage to battery lifetime;
2) charging is dangerous at pretty low temperature, well below freezing
Lead acid 1) Higher temperature leads to lower V-threshold by 3 mV/°C;
2) charging at 0.3 C or less below freezing
NiMH, NiCd 1) Charging acceptance decreases from 70% at 45 °C to 45% at 60 °C, respectively;
2) 0.1 C charging rate between –17 °C and 0 °C;
3) 0.3 C charging between 0 °C and 6 °C
Tab.2  Charging performance for various batteries
Fig.4  Traditional charging approaches for battery in EVs
Fig.5  Battery current and voltage of CC-CV charging approach
Fig.6  Battery current and voltage of MCC charging approach
Approach Advantages Disadvantages Key elements
CC Easy to implement Capacity utilization is low 1) Charging constant current rate;
2) terminal condition
CV 1) Easy to implement;
2) stable terminal voltage
Easy to cause the lattice collapse of battery 1) Charging constant voltage;
2) terminal condition
CC-CV 1) Capacity utilization is high;
2) stable terminal voltage
Difficult to balance objectives such as charging speed, energy loss, temperature variation 1) Constant current rate in CC phase;
2) constant voltage in CV phase;
3) terminal condition
MCC 1) Easy to implement;
2) easy to achieve fast charging
Difficult to balance objectives such as charging speed, capacity utilization and battery lifetime 1) The number of CC stages.
2) constant current rates for each stage.
Tab.3  Comparison of traditional battery charging approaches in EVs
Fig.7  Optimizations of battery charging approach in EVs
Fig.8  Summary of improvements to the CC-CV/MCC charging approach
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