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Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering

Front. Agr. Sci. Eng.    2019, Vol. 6 Issue (3) : 240-250     https://doi.org/10.15302/J-FASE-2019261
REVIEW
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: history, activities, impact and future
Alexey MORGOUNOV1(), Fatih OZDEMIR2, Mesut KESER3, Beyhan AKIN1, Thomas PAYNE4, Hans-Joachim BRAUN4
1. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Ankara 06511, Turkey
2. Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute, Konya 42001, Turkey
3. International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Ankara 06511, Turkey
4. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Texcoco 56100, Mexico
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Abstract

International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (IWWIP) was established in 1986 between the Government of Turkey and CIMMYT with three main objectives: (1) develop winter/facultative germplasm for Central and West Asia, (2) facilitate global winter wheat germplasm exchange, and (3) training wheat scientists. ICARDA joined the program in 1991 making it a three-way partnership that continues to work effectively. The germplasm developed by IWWIP as well as the winter wheat cultivars and lines received from global cooperators are assembled into international nurseries. These nurseries are offered annually to public and private entities (IWWIP website) and distributed to more than 100 cooperators in all continents. IWWIP impact has primarily been in new winter wheat cultivars combining broad adaptation, high yield potential, drought tolerance and disease resistance. A total of 93 IWWIP cultivars have been released in 11 countries occupying annually an estimated 2.5–3.0 Mha. IWWIP cooperation with researchers in Turkey, Central and West Asia and several US universities has resulted in a number of publications reviewed in this paper. Important IWWIP impacts include national inventories of wheat landraces in Turkey, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, their collection, characterization, evaluation and utilization.

Keywords biotic and abiotic stresses      breeding      methodology      winter wheat     
Corresponding Authors: Alexey MORGOUNOV   
Just Accepted Date: 24 April 2019   Online First Date: 28 May 2019    Issue Date: 26 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
Alexey MORGOUNOV,Fatih OZDEMIR,Mesut KESER, et al. International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: history, activities, impact and future[J]. Front. Agr. Sci. Eng. , 2019, 6(3): 240-250.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fase/EN/10.15302/J-FASE-2019261
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fase/EN/Y2019/V6/I3/240
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Alexey MORGOUNOV
Fatih OZDEMIR
Mesut KESER
Beyhan AKIN
Thomas PAYNE
Hans-Joachim BRAUN
Country Area/Mha Yield/(t·ha1) Production/Mt Import or export*/Mt
1996−2000 2013−2017 % change 1996−2000 2013−2017 % change 1996−2000 2013−2017 % change
Afghanistan 2.08 2.35 +12.7 1.13 2.05 +81.5 2.36 4.81 +103.6 −0.26
Armenia 0.11 0.10 −5.0 1.95 3.02 +55.3 0.20 0.31 +50.7 −0.31
Azerbaijan 0.48 0.60 +25.2 1.85 2.81 +51.9 0.89 1.69 +90.1 −1.29
Georgia 0.12 0.04 −61.6 1.46 2.11 +45.1 0.17 0.10 −44.3 −0.55
Iran 5.73 6.16 +7.5 1.71 1.95 +14.5 9.75 12.00 +23.0 −4.21
Kazakhstan 9.95 12.20? +22.1 0.85 1.16 +37.1 8.34 14.10 +69.0 +4.33
Kyrgyzstan 0.49 0.30 −38.3 2.29 2.26 −1.5 1.12 0.67 −39.9 −0.33
Tajikistan 0.33 0.30 −8.9 1.12 3.04 +171.4 0.37 0.91 +144.7 −0.82
Turkey 9.26 7.74 −16.4 2.10 2.73 +30.3 19.40 21.10 +8.9 −4.48
Turkmenistan 0.58 1.39 +142.0 1.92 1.00 −47.8 1.12 1.36 +21.5 −0.61
Uzbekistan 1.40 1.44 +3.1 2.45 4.69 +91.3 3.43 6.76 +97.2 −1.17
Tab.1  Key wheat production statistics for countries of Central and West Asia in 1996–2017
Region Number and proportion of the breeding programs considering IWWIP germplasm as
Not useful Useful Very useful
Number ?% Number ?% Number %
Central and West Asia 1 5 8 42 8 42
Europe 2 9 16 73 2 9
America 0 0 7 87 1 13
All 3 6 31 63 11 22
Region Number and proportion of the breeding programs selecting the following % of IWWIP germplasm from international nurseries
<10% 10%–30% >30%
Number ?% Number ?% Number %
Central and West Asia 4 21 13 68 1 5
Europe 13 59 6 27 1 5
America 7 87 1 13 0 0
All 24 49 20 41 2 4
Tab.2  Results of 2012 IWWIP survey of collaborating programs
Country Number of released cultivars
Pre-1995 1996–2000 2001–2005 2006–2010 2011–2015 2016+ Total
Afghanistan 1 2 1 0 1 1 6
Armenia 0 0 0 4 ? ? 4
Azerbaijan 0 0 0 1 2 2 5
Georgia 0 0 1 2 2 2 7
Iran 0 1 1 0 3 1 7
Kazakhstan 0 0 0 1 1 0 2
Kyrgyzstan 0 0 4 2 3 2 9
Tajikistan 0 0 0 3 3 4 10
Turkey 2 6 13 4 3 7 35
Turkmenistan 0 0 1 0 0 2 3
Uzbekistan 0 0 1 0 0 4 5
Total 3 9 22 17 17 25 93
Tab.3  The number of cultivars released in Central and West Asia originating from IWWIP
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