With the smooth move towards the coming expected clinical reports of anticancer pharmaceutical molecules targeting telomeres and telomerase, and also with the exciting success in the extension of lifespan by regulating telomerase activity without increased onset of oncogenesis in laboratory mouse models (Garcia-Cao et al., 2006; Jaskelioff et al., 2011), we are convinced that targeting telomeres based on telomerase will be a potential approach to conquer both aging and cancer and the idea of longevity seems to be no more mysterious. More interestingly, emerging evidences from clinical research reveal that other telomeric factors, like specifi c telomeric binding proteins and nonspecific telomere associated proteins also show crucial importance in aging and oncogenesis. This stems from their roles in the stability of telomere structure and in the inhibition of DNA damage response at telomeres. Uncapping these proteins from chromosome ends leads to dramatic telomere loss and telomere dysfunction which is more abrupt than those induced by telomerase inactivation. Abnormal expression of these factors results in developmental failure, aging and even oncogenesis evidenced by several experimental models and clinical cases, indicating telomere specifi c proteins and its associated proteins have complimentary roles to telomerase in telomere protection and controlling cellular fate. Thus, these telomeric factors might be potential clinical biomarkers for early detection or even therapeutic targets of aging and cancer. Future studies to elucidate how these proteins function in telomere protection might benefit patients suffering aging or cancer who are not sensitive to telomerase mediation.
The mitochondrial respiratory chain consists of 5 enzyme complexes that are responsible for ATP generation. The paradigm of the electron transport chain as discrete enzymes diffused in the inner mitochondrial membrane has been replaced by the solid state supercomplex model wherein the respiratory complexes associate with each other to form supramolecular complexes. Defects in these supercomplexes, which have been shown to be functionally active and required for forming stable respiratory complexes, have been associated with many genetic and neurodegenerative disorders demonstrating their biomedical significance. In this review, we will summarize the functional and structural significance of supercomplexes and provide a comprehensive review of their assembly and the assembly factors currently known to play a role in this process.
HIV-1 utilizes cellular factors for efficient replication. The viral RNA is different from cellular mRNAs in many aspects, and is prone to attacks by cellular RNA quality control systems. To establish effective infection, the virus has evolved multiple mechanisms to protect its RNA. Here, we show that expression of the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) enhanced the production of HIV-1. Downregulation of endogenous YB-1 in producer cells decreased viral production. YB-1 increased viral protein expression by stabilizing HIV-1 RNAs. The stem loop 2 in the HIV-1 RNA packaging signal was mapped to be the YB-1-responsive element. Taken together, these results indicate that YB-1 stabilizes HIV-1 genomic RNA and thereby enhances HIV-1 gene expression and viral production.
The resolution of single molecule localization imaging techniques largely depends on the precision of localization algorithms. However, the commonly used Gaussian function is not appropriate for anisotropic dipoles because it is not the true point spread function. We derived the theoretical point spread function of tilted dipoles with restricted mobility and developed an algorithm based on an artificial neural network for estimating the localization, orientation and mobility of individual dipoles. Compared with fitting-based methods, our algorithm demonstrated ultrafast speed and higher accuracy, reduced sensitivity to defocusing, strong robustness and adaptability, making it an optimal choice for both two-dimensional and threedimensional super-resolution imaging analysis.
Under natural environments, plants and algae have evolved various photosynthetic acclimation mechanisms in response to the constantly changing light conditions. The state transition and long-term response processes in photosynthetic acclimation involve remodeling and composition alteration of thylakoid membrane. A chloroplast protein kinase named Stt7/STN7 has been found to have pivotal roles in both state transition and longterm response. Here we report the crystal structures of the kinase domain of a putative Stt7/STN7 homolog from
The differentiation of periodontal ligament (PDL) progenitor cells is important for maintaining the homeostasis of PDL tissue and alveolar bone. Vitamin C (VC), a water-soluble nutrient that cannot be biosynthesized by humans, is vital for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and plays an important role in bone remodeling. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the function and mechanism of VC in PDL progenitor cells osteogenic differentiation at the molecular level. We demonstrated that VC could induce the osteogenic differentiation and maturation of PDL progenitor cell without other osteogenic agents. During the process, VC preferentially activated ERK1/2 but did not affect JNK or p38. Co-treatment with ERK inhibitor effectively decreased the Vitamin C-induced expression of Runx2. ERK inhibitor also abrogated Vitamin C-induced the minimized nodules formation. PELP1, a nuclear receptor co-regulator, was up-regulated under VC treatment. PELP1 knockdown inhibited ERK phosphorylation. The overexpression of PELP1 had a positive relationship with Runx2 expression. Taken together, we could make a conclude that VC induces the osteogenic differentiation of PDL progenitor cells via PELP1-ERK axis. Our fi nding implies that VC may have a potential in the regeneration medicine and application to periodontitis treatment.
Disulfide bond-forming (Dsb) protein is a bacterial periplasmic protein that is essential for the correct folding and disulfide bond formation of secreted or cell wallassociated proteins. DsbA introduces disulfide bonds into folding proteins, and is re-oxidized through interaction with its redox partner DsbB.