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Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (6) : 988-996
Effects of gradient concentration on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode materials
Wenming Li, Weijian Tang, Maoqin Qiu, Qiuge Zhang, Muhammad Irfan, Zeheng Yang(), Weixin Zhang()
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
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Nickel(Ni)-rich layered materials have attracted considerable interests as promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their higher capacities and lower cost. Nevertheless, Mn-rich cathode materials usually suffer from poor cyclability caused by the unavoidable side-reactions between Ni4+ ions on the surface and electrolytes. The design of gradient concentration (GC) particles with Ni-rich inside and Mn-rich outside is proved to be an efficient way to address the issue. Herein, a series of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (LNCM622) materials with different GCs (the atomic ratio of Ni/Mn decreasing from the core to the outer layer) have been successfully synthesized via rationally designed co-precipitation process. Experimental results demonstrate that the GC of LNCM622 materials plays an important role in their microstructure and electrochemical properties. The as-prepared GC3.5 cathode material with optimal GC can provide a shorter pathway for lithium-ion diffusion and stabilize the near-surface region, and finally achieve excellent electrochemical performances, delivering a discharge capacity over 176 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C rate and exhibiting capacity retention up to 94% after 100 cycles at 1 C. The rationally-designed co-precipitation process for fabricating the Ni-rich layered cathode materials with gradient composition lays a solid foundation for the preparation of high-performance cathode materials for LIBs.

Keywords gradient concentration      Ni-rich      LiNi0.6Co0.2-Mn0.2O2      electrochemical performance      lithium-ion battery     
Corresponding Author(s): Zeheng Yang,Weixin Zhang   
Online First Date: 09 April 2020    Issue Date: 11 September 2020
 Cite this article:   
Wenming Li,Weijian Tang,Maoqin Qiu, et al. Effects of gradient concentration on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode materials[J]. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(6): 988-996.
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Wenming Li
Weijian Tang
Maoqin Qiu
Qiuge Zhang
Muhammad Irfan
Zeheng Yang
Weixin Zhang
Fig.1  Schematic illustration of the GC cathode materials particle.
Fig.2  Schematic setup for preparation of the GC and CC Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursors.
Samples Volume of solution /mL Molar ratio of Ni:Co:Mn for raw materials
Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 1 Tank 2
GC2.75 1600 800 6:2:2.75 6:2:0.5
GC3.5 1200 1200 6:2:3.5 6:2:0.5
GC5 800 1600 6:2:5 6:2:0.5
CC2 0 2400 0 6:2:2
Tab.1  Experimental?conditions for GC and CC Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursors
Fig.3  XRD patterns of the GC and CC LNCM622 samples.
Fig.4  FESEM images of four Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursors (left column) and the corresponding LNCM622 products (right column). (a, e) CC, (b, f) GC2.75, (c, g) GC3.5 and (d, h) GC5.
Fig.5  (a) The Line-scanning EDS, (b) EDS spectra and (c) EDS mapping of the GC3.5 single particle.
Fig.6  (a) Distribution of particle size and (b) bar chart of the tap density of CC and GCs LNCM622 samples.
Fig.7  Electrochemical performances of CC and GC cathode materials between 2.8 and 4.3 V at 25°C: (a) initial charge-discharge curves, (b) rate capability, (c) cycling performance, (d) cyclic voltammogram (CV) curves at 0.1 mV·s1.
Fig.8  Nyquist impedance plots of the CC2 and GC3.5 cathode materials.
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