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Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (6) : 956-966
Efficient degradation of orange II by ZnMn2O4 in a novel photo-chemical catalysis system
Qingzhuo Ni1,2,3, Hao Cheng2, Jianfeng Ma1,2(), Yong Kong1, Sridhar Komarneni4()
1. School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China
2. Guangxi Key Laboratory of Green Processing of Sugar Resources, College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi Science University of and Technology, Liuzhou 545006, China
3. Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oil-Gas Storage and Transportation Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China
4. Department of Ecosystem Science and Management and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
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A ZnMn2O4 catalyst has been synthesized via a sucrose-aided combustion method and characterized by various analytical techniques. It is composed of numerous nanoparticles (15–110 nm) assembled into a porous structure with a specific surface area (SSA) of 19.1 m2·g–1. Its catalytic activity has been investigated for the degradation of orange II dye using three different systems, i.e., the photocatalysis system with visible light, the chemocatalysis system with bisulfite, and the photo-chemical catalysis system with both visible light and bisulfite. The last system exhibits the maximum degradation efficiency of 90%, much higher than the photocatalysis system (15%) and the chemocatalysis system (67%). The recycling experiments indicate that the ZnMn2O4 catalyst has high stability and reusability and is thus a green and eximious catalyst. Furthermore, the potential degradation mechanisms applicable to the three systems are discussed with relevant theoretical analysis and scavenging experiments for radicals. The active species such as Mn(III), O2, h+, eaq, SO4 and HO are proposed to be responsible for the excellent degradation results in the photo-chemical catalysis system with the ZnMn2O4 catalyst.

Keywords ZnMn2O4      photo-chemical catalysis      bisulfite      dye degradation     
Corresponding Author(s): Jianfeng Ma,Sridhar Komarneni   
Just Accepted Date: 10 January 2020   Online First Date: 11 March 2020    Issue Date: 11 September 2020
 Cite this article:   
Qingzhuo Ni,Hao Cheng,Jianfeng Ma, et al. Efficient degradation of orange II by ZnMn2O4 in a novel photo-chemical catalysis system[J]. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(6): 956-966.
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Qingzhuo Ni
Hao Cheng
Jianfeng Ma
Yong Kong
Sridhar Komarneni
Fig.1  XRD pattern of the ZnMn2O4 catalyst.
Fig.2  SEM images of the ZnMn2O4 catalyst.
Fig.3  (a) Orange II degradation in different systems, and (b) sulfate ion concentration in different systems. Conditions: orange II 6 mg·L1, ZnMn2O4 1.0 g·L1, and NaHSO3 1.2 g·L1.
Fig.4  (a) Recycling runs for the degradation of orange II in the photo-chemical catalysis system (Conditions: orange II 6 mg·L1, ZnMn2O4 1.0 g·L1, and NaHSO3 1.2 g·L1); (b) XRD patterns of the ZnMn2O4 after different recycling runs.
Fig.5  UV-Vis spectra during the degradation of orange II for the chemocatalysis system. Conditions: orange II 6 mg·L1, ZnMn2O4 1.0 g·L1, and NaHSO3 1.2 g·L1
Fig.6  Orange II degradation in the chemocatalysis system. Conditions: orange II 6 mg·L1, ZnMn2O4 1.0 g·L1, and NaHSO3 1.2 g·L1.
Fig.7  UV-Vis spectra during the degradation of orange II for the photo-chemical catalysis system. Conditions: orange II 6 mg·L1, ZnMn2O4 1.0 g·L1, and NaHSO3 1.2 g·L1.
Fig.8  XPS spectra of ZnMn2O4 catalyst before and after reaction: (a) survey, (b) Mn 2p, (c) Zn 2p, and (d) O 1s.
Fig.9  Orange II degradation in the photo-chemical catalysis system. Conditions: orange II 6 mg·L1, ZnMn2O4 1.0 g·L1, and NaHSO3 1.2 g·L1.
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