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Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (6) : 1100-1111     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11705-019-1891-3
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Catalytic process modeling and sensitivity analysis of alkylation of benzene with ethanol over MIL-101(Fe) and MIL-88(Fe)
Ehsan Rahmani, Mohammad Rahmani()
Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 158754413, Iran
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Abstract

A solvothermal method was used to synthesize MIL-101(Fe) and MIL-88(Fe), which were used for alkylation of benzene. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, and BET techniques. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were modeled to investigate the catalytic performance and existence of mass transfer limitations. Calculated effectiveness factors revealed absence of internal and external mass transfer. Sensitivity analysis revealed best operating conditions over MIL-101 at 120°C and 5 bar and over MIL-88 at 142°C and 9 bar.

Keywords MOFs      alkylation      ethylbenzene      catalysts pellet model      kinetic model      sensitivity analysis     
Corresponding Author(s): Mohammad Rahmani   
Just Accepted Date: 19 November 2019   Online First Date: 06 May 2020    Issue Date: 11 September 2020
 Cite this article:   
Ehsan Rahmani,Mohammad Rahmani. Catalytic process modeling and sensitivity analysis of alkylation of benzene with ethanol over MIL-101(Fe) and MIL-88(Fe)[J]. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(6): 1100-1111.
 URL:  
https://journal.hep.com.cn/fcse/EN/10.1007/s11705-019-1891-3
https://journal.hep.com.cn/fcse/EN/Y2020/V14/I6/1100
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Fig.1  Schematic of MOF catalyst particles as a porous medium.
Fig.2  Scheme 1 Alkylation of benzene over MIL-101(Fe) and MIL-88(Fe).
Fig.3  Powder XRD for the synthesized MIL-101(Fe) and MIL-88(Fe).
Fig.4  FT-IR spectra for the synthesized MIL-101(Fe) and MIL-88(Fe).
Fig.5  FESEM micrographs of (a) MIL-88(Fe) and (b) MIL-101(Fe).
Fig.6  DLS results for (a) MIL-101(Fe) and (b) MIL-88(Fe).
Catalyst Particle size /nm Surface area /(m2·g–1) Pore diameter /nm Porosity /e
MIL-101 685 1800 2 0.55
MIL-88 567 3040 0.9 0.75
Tab.1  Summarized properties of the synthesized MOFs
Fig.7  Conversion of the alkylation agent over (a) MIL-101(Fe) and (b) MIL-88(Fe).
Catalyst Temperature /°C Model parameter Activation energy /(kJ·mol–1) R2
ks /(mol·g–1·min–1) KB /(mL·mol–1) KA /(mL·mol–1)
MIL-101(Fe) 125 1.429×104 1.97 543.2 49.9 0.96
150 1.359×104 0.46 386.4 0.97
175 2564.0 0.14 218.1 0.96
MIL-88(Fe) 150 2980.0 0.59 537.5 172.3 0.98
175 4.582×104 0.30 299.0 0.96
200 2.020×104 0.16 283.0 0.98
Tab.2  Parameter estimation results for the LH equationa)
Fig.8  Concentration profiles of ethanol (EtOH), benzene (Bz), ethylbenzene (EB), and toluene (Tol) over MIL-101 (150°C) (a) and MIL-88 (175°C) (b) utilizing the LH model.
Fig.9  Selectivity of ethylbenzene (EB) over MIL-88 (a) and MIL-101 (b) as a function of temperature.
Fig.10  Variation of effectiveness factor of MIL-101(Fe) and MIL-88(Fe) with pellet size.
Catalyst Density /(g·cm–3) Deff /(cm2·s–1) Cwp rA,obsVpApC Agkg
MIL-101(Fe) 0.62 1.93×10–3 8.86×10–4 2.47×10–4
MIL-88(Fe) 1.51 1.55×10–3 1.70×10–3 1.70×10–4
Tab.3  Calculated values for external and internal mass transfer limitations
Fig.11  Temperature sensitivity analysis for MIL-101 (a) and MIL-88 (b).
Fig.12  Pressure sensitivity analysis for MIL-101 (a) and MIL-88 (b).
Deff (m2·s–1) Effective diffusion coefficient
DAB (m2·s–1) Molecular diffusion coefficient
Dk (m2·s–1) Knudsen diffusion coefficient
Dpore (m2·s–1) Pore diffusion coefficient
CA (mol·L–1) Concentration of alkylation agent
rA (mol·m–3·min–1) Alkylation agent reaction rate
T (°C) Reaction temperature
r (m) Pellet radius
f= CA/CA0 Dimensionless concentration
r = r/R0 Dimensionless radius
MA (g·mol–1) Molecular weight of alkylation agent
MB (g·mol–1) Molecular weight of benzene
P (bar) Pressure
s (Å) Effective collision diameter
W Collision integral
e Pellet porosity
t Pellet tortuosity
h Effectiveness factor
CWP Weisz-Prator criterion
Vp (m3) Pellet volume
Ap (m2) Pellet surface
CAg (mol·L–1) Alkylation agent gas phase concentration
kg (m·s–1) Gas phase local mass transfer coefficient
rAobs (mol·m–3·min–1) Alkylation agent observed rate
Pe Pecledt number
Sc Schmidt number
Re Reynolds number
  
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