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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2020, Vol. 13 Issue (1) : 35-49
Research development on fabrication and optical properties of nonlinear photonic crystals
Huangjia LI, Boqin MA()
School of Data Science and Media Intelligence, Communication University of China, Beijing 100024, China
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Since the lasers at fixed wavelengths are unable to meet the requirements of the development of modern science and technology, nonlinear optics is significant for overcoming the obstacle. Investigation on frequency conversion in ferroelectric nonlinear photonic crystals with different superlattices has been being one of the popular research directions in this field. In this paper, some mature fabrication methods of nonlinear photonic crystals are concluded, for example, the electric poling method at room temperature and the femtosecond direct laser writing technique. Then the development of nonlinear photonic crystals with one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional superlattices which are used in quasi-phase matching and nonlinear diffraction harmonic generation is introduced. In the meantime, several creative applications of nonlinear photonic crystals are summarized, showing the great value of them in an extensive practical area, such as communication, detection, imaging, and so on.

Keywords quasi-phase matching (QPM)      nonlinear diffraction (ND)      superlattice      nonlinear photonic crystal (NPC)      reciprocal lattice vector (RLV)     
Corresponding Authors: Boqin MA   
Just Accepted Date: 18 September 2019   Online First Date: 12 November 2019    Issue Date: 03 April 2020
 Cite this article:   
Huangjia LI,Boqin MA. Research development on fabrication and optical properties of nonlinear photonic crystals[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2020, 13(1): 35-49.
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Huangjia LI
Boqin MA
Fig.1  Experimental schematic of  fabrication methods of nonlinear photonic crystals. (a) Electric field poling method with electrolyte; (b) electric field poling method with Al electrode [2]; (c) femtosecond direct laser writing technique [15]. The inset outlines the inscription routine in which the black lines indicate the switch of the laser is turned off
Fig.2  All the types of phase-matching  condition during χ2 processes. (a)Birefringent phase matching (BPM) and quasi-phase matching (QPM) processes [22]

Reproduced from Ref. [22], with the permission of the American Institute of Physics

; (b) spontaneously longitudinal phase matching generates nonlinear Čerenkov radiation (NCR) without reciprocal vectors compensation; (c) transverse phase matching compensated by reciprocal vectors generates nonlinear Raman-Nath diffraction (NRND); (d) nonlinear Bragg diffraction (NBD) generated by both transverse and longitudinal phase matching
Fig.3  Experimental schematic and  observed second harmonic diffraction patterns of nonlinear Raman-Nath diffraction in one-dimensional single-period structure. (a) Experimental schematic with structured nonlinear photonic crystal [28]

Adapted with permission from Ref. [28], © The Optical Society

; (b) nonlinear diffraction pattern of structured nonlinear photonic crystal [28]; (c) holograms loaded on spatial light modulator representing the phase structure of the fundamental wave [29]

Adapted with permission from Ref. [29], © The Optical Society

; (d) nonlinear diffraction pattern of structured fundamental wave [29]
Fig.4  Schematic diagrams of the structural  geometry in one-dimensional superlattices. (a) Fibonacci quasi-periodic superlattice [3]; (b) cascaded dual-periodic superlattice [30]; (c) chirped superlattice [31]; (d) short-range ordered superlattice [32]
Ref. superlattice
[3] Fibonacci LiTaO3 0.9726, 1.0846,
1.2834, 1.3650,
SHG 0.4863, 0.5423,
0.6417, 0.6825,
7.5%, 17.5%,
9.1%, 6.7%,
0.3, 0.4,
0.85, 1.1,
LiTaO3 1.570 THG 0.523 23% 5
[27] single-period LiNbO3 1.064 SHG 0.532 42%
[30] cascaded
+ 7 channels)
LiTaO3 1.064, 1.342 SHG+ THG 447, 532, 671
[31] chirped LiNbO3 1.37−1.47 SHG 0.69−0.74 30% 98
LiNbO3 1.38−1.45 THG 0.46−0.48 2% 74
[32] short-range ordered LiNbO3 1.50 SHG 0.75 0.23% 60
Tab.1  Experimental parameters of  quasi-phase matching harmonic generation in one-dimensional superlattices
Fig.5  Schematic diagrams of the  structural geometry in two-dimensional superlattices. (a) Hexagonal superlattice [6]; (b) annular superlattice [40]

Adapted with permission from Ref. [40], © The Optical Society

; (c) brick-like superlattice [41]; (d) ellipse superlattice [42]; (e) octagonal superlattice [43]; (f) H-fractal superlattice [44]; (g) sunflower spiral superlattice [12]

Adapted with permission from Ref. [12], © The Optical Society

; (h) short-range ordered superlattice [13]; (i) radial superlattice [10]
Fig.6  Conversion efficiencies under multiple fundamental wavelengths within two-dimensional superlattices
Fig.7  Nonlinear diffraction second or  third harmonic generation in two-dimensional superlattices. (a) Sunflower spiral LiNbO3 [12]

Adapted with permission from Ref. [12], © The Optical Society

; (b) short-range ordered LiNbO3 [13]; (c) two collinear fundamental waves [10]; (d) two crossed noncollinear fundamental waves [56]

Adapted with permission from Ref. [56], © The Optical Society

Fig.8  Patterns of quasi-phase matching  harmonics and schematic diagrams of the structural geometry in three-dimensional superlattices. (a) Patterns of harmonics generated from naturally grown Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 [20]; (b) tetragonal LiNbO3 fabricated by femtosecond laser engineering [60]; (c) tetragonal Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 fabricated by tightly focused infrared femtosecond laser pulses [61]; (d) cylindrical and cubical structures simulated by computer [62]

Adapted with permission from Ref. [62], © The Optical Society

Fig.9  Experimental schematic of  different applications of nonlinear photonic crystal. (a) Domain visualization [9]

Adapted with permission from Ref. [9], © The Optical Society

; (b)

Adapted with permission from Ref. [63], © The Optical Society

optical parametric oscillator [63]; (c)

Adapted with permission from Ref. [64], © The Optical Society

terahertz-wave difference-frequency generation [64]; (d) holographic beam shaping [65]; (e) gas detection [66]
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