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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2020, Vol. 13 Issue (1) : 12-17     https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0941-2
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Holographic fabrication of octagon graded photonic super-crystal and potential applications in topological photonics
Oliver SALE1, Safaa HASSAN1, Noah HURLEY1, Khadijah ALNASSER1, Usha PHILIPOSE1, Hualiang ZHANG2, Yuankun LIN1,3()
1. Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
2. ECE Department, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
3. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
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Abstract

Novel optical properties in graded photonic super-crystals can be further explored if new types of graded photonic super-crystals are fabricated. In this paper, we report holographic fabrication of graded photonic super-crystal with eight graded lattice clusters surrounding the central non-gradient lattices through pixel-by-pixel phase engineering in a spatial light modulator. The prospect of applications of octagon graded photonic super-crystal in topological photonics is discussed through photonic band gap engineering and coupled ring resonators.

Keywords 2D photonic crystal      graded photonic super-crystal      holographic fabrication      photonic band structure     
Corresponding Authors: Yuankun LIN   
Online First Date: 23 September 2019    Issue Date: 03 April 2020
 Cite this article:   
Oliver SALE,Safaa HASSAN,Noah HURLEY, et al. Holographic fabrication of octagon graded photonic super-crystal and potential applications in topological photonics[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2020, 13(1): 12-17.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/10.1007/s12200-019-0941-2
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/Y2020/V13/I1/12
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Oliver SALE
Safaa HASSAN
Noah HURLEY
Khadijah ALNASSER
Usha PHILIPOSE
Hualiang ZHANG
Yuankun LIN
Fig.1  (a) Designed phase pattern in a unit cell indicated by the solid red square. The pixels were assigned with different gray level pairs in checkerboard format in regions (I) and (II). Lines indicate the periodic unit for the diffraction. (b) Optical image of diffraction pattern of 532 nm laser from the phase pattern in SLM. 12 beams, indicated by red circles, pass through the Fourier filter for multi-beam interference. The cell-phone camera was tilted to avoid the back-reflection spots
Fig.2  Schematic of the optical setup for the holographic fabrication of octagon GPSC. The diffracted beams from the phase pattern displayed in SLM are filtered at the Fourier Plane and form interference patterns through 4f imaging system. θ1 and θ2 are the first order diffraction angles due to the periodic array of 2 pixels, 24 pixels, respectively. α1 and α2 (zenith angle) are the interfering angles of 1−4 beams and 5−12 beams in Fig. 1(b), respectively
Fig.3  (a) Simulated 12-beam interference pattern with 8 graded regions forming octagon and surrounding the central almost uniform region. The yellow square indicates the unit super-cell. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a fabricated sample where the 8 graded regions are connected by a dashed red octagon. The solid red square indicates the unit super-cell and both squares indicate a square symmetry. A lattice spacing parameter L = 4 µm. (c) Diffraction pattern of fabricated sample from 532 nm laser. An insert inside the dashed white square is a copy of pattern in the central region with 5 squares for eye guidance purpose. The yellow octagon is for eye guidance
Fig.4  (a) and (b) Simulated electric field distributions in the boundary of graded and uniform regions. (c) Possible side and link ring formation in octagon GPSCs
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