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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2019, Vol. 12 Issue (1) : 52-68     https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0910-9
REVIEW ARTICLE
A review of multiple optical vortices generation: methods and applications
Long ZHU, Jian WANG()
Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
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Abstract

Optical vortices carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have attracted increasing interest in recent years. Optical vortices have seen a variety of emerging applications in optical manipulation, optical trapping, optical tweezers, optical vortex knots, imaging, microscopy, sensing, metrology, quantum information processing, and optical communications. In various optical vortices enabled applications, the generation of multiple optical vortices is of great importance. In this review article, we focus on the methods of multiple optical vortices generation and its applications. We review the methods for generating multiple optical vortices in three cases, i.e., 1-to-N collinear OAM modes, 1-to-N OAM mode array and N-to-N collinear OAM modes. Diverse applications of multiple OAM modes in optical communications and non-communication areas are presented. Future trends, perspectives and opportunities are also discussed.

Keywords optical communications      optical vortices      orbital angular momentum (OAM)      mode-division multiplexing (MDM)      mode multicasting     
Corresponding Authors: Jian WANG   
Online First Date: 15 April 2019    Issue Date: 29 April 2019
 Cite this article:   
Long ZHU,Jian WANG. A review of multiple optical vortices generation: methods and applications[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2019, 12(1): 52-68.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/10.1007/s12200-019-0910-9
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/Y2019/V12/I1/52
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Fig.1  Schematic illustration of multiple optical vortices generation. (a) 1-to-N collinear OAM modes; (b) 1-to-N OAM modes array; (c) N-to-N collinear OAM modes
Fig.2  Multiple OAM modes generation using an all-phase pattern with a combination of two amplitudes and a sliced phase pattern. Left: input OAM state spectrum; middle: amplitude and phase patterns for multicasting; right: generated OAM spectrum [34]
Fig.3  Experimental results of the generated 7 equally spaced OAM modes. (a) Left: the intensity of the input OAM beam; middle: the phase pattern for multicasting; right: the intensity of the beam after multicasting. (b) theoretical and experimental results of the OAM charge spectrum after multicasting [34]
Fig.4  Simulation results of 100 randomly spaced OAM modes with topological charge {±1,±5,±8,±14,±15,±17,±19,±21,±25,±26,±27,±28,±29,±31,±37,±38,±41,±42,±43,±44,±46,±47,±48,±49,±50,±52,±53,±56,±58,±59,±61,±63,±64,±67,±73,±76,±79,±80,±81,±83,±84,±87,±88,±89,±90,±93,±94,±97,±98,±100}. (a) 100 OAM modes spectrum by PSI algorithm; (b) phase pattern for generating 100 OAM modes by PSI algorithm [36]
Fig.5  R-RMSE convergence curves of PSI algorithm. (a) Convergence curve for generating 20 randomly spaced equal-power OAM modes; (b) convergence curve for generating 50 randomly spaced equal-power OAM modes [36]
Fig.6  (a) Phase patterns loaded onto practical SLM for generating 20 randomly spaced OAM modes with topological charge {5, 7, 8, 14, 17, 21, 25, 28, 29, 31, 33, 37, 38, 41, 42, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49} by PSI algorithm, respectively; (b) OAM spectra of the original phase pattern (blue) and realistic SLM phase pattern (red) by PSI algorithm, respectively [36]
Fig.7  Simulation results of weight manipulation of 50 OAM modes with topological charge {10, 15, 20,…, 255}. (a) Target spectrum; (b) spectrum by PSI algorithm [36]
Fig.8  (a) Concept and principle of arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase distribution; (b) theoretical and experimental results of multiple OAM modes generation with two phase-only SLMs [37]
Fig.9  Intensity profiles of the generated LG and Bessel modes by manipulation the amplitude and phase independently with two phase-only SLMs [37]
Fig.10  (a) 1D and (c) 2D Dammann vortex gratings with (b) and (d) corresponding results [38]
Fig.11  (a) and (b) Center portion and typical outer areas of the fabricated Dammann vortex grating; (c)−(f) OAM detection results using the fabricated Dammann vortex grating. The topological charges of the input OAM are (c) 0, (d) - 2, (e) - 7 and (f) 12, and the labels show the detection orders [39]
Fig.12  (a) Concept and (b)−(d) simulation results of on-chip OAM mode array emitter on silicon platform [40]
Fig.13  (a) Experimental configuration for observing the generation of an OV lattice using the fabricated on-chip OV lattice emitter; (b) measured near-field intensity distribution of y-polarization light coming out from the emitter; (c) measured far-field intensity distribution of an OV lattice generated by the emitter. The inset shows the zoom-in intensity distribution of OVs; (d) measured intensity distribution of fork-like fringe patterns by interfering the generated OV lattice with a plane wave. The inset shows the zoom-in intensity distribution of fork-like fringe patterns [40]
Fig.14  Schematic of the Dammann vortex grating for multiple collinear OAM modes generation. (a) Gaussian beams incident on the grating at its diffraction angles; (b) Combined coaxial OAM beam with multiple states (b1) propagates in free space. (b2, b3) The simulated intensity pattern and wavefront of the OAM beam, respectively; (c) OAM channels are converted into Gaussian beams and are separated spatially for detection [41]
Fig.15  Experimental results of OAM-based free-space optical communications. (a) Spectra of the OAM states+ 27 and+ 29 with the 80-wavelength WDM system; (b) optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties of the 10 OAM states; (c) bit-error rate (BER) characteristics in the same OAM channel (l = -15) for the 10 different wavelength channels [41]
Fig.16  Schematic of OAM mode sorter for OAM modes multiplexing and demultiplexing [45]
Fig.17  Experimental results of multiple OAM modes generation with OAM mode sorter. (a1)−(c1): Intensity profiles of OAM modes generated by the OAM mode sorter; (a2)−(c2): “spiral” interferograms of each OAM mode; (a3)−(c3): OAM power spectra of each OAM mode [45]
Fig.18  Concept and experimental results of 1-to-34 OAM mode multicasting. (a) Concept and principle of 1-to-34 OAM mode multicasting; (b) measured OAM spectrum of all the multicasted OAM modes; (c) mode crosstalk of all the multicasted OAM modes [46]
Fig.19  (a) Concept, (b) and (c) experimental results of power-controllable OAM mode multicasting [47]
Fig.20  (a) Concept and principle of turbulence compensation for a distorted OAM multicasting link; (b) measured OAM spectrum of all the multicasted OAM modes without turbulence; (c) measured OAM spectrum of all the multicasted OAM modes with turbulence; (d) measured OAM spectrum of all the multicasted OAM modes with turbulence-induced distortion compensation [48]
Fig.21  (a) Experimental setup of obstruction-free data-carrying N-fold Bessel modes multicasting; (b) measured Bessel modes spectrum with and without obstruction; (c) measured BER performance of Bessel modes multicasting [49]
Fig.22  (a) Experimental setup and (b) measured results of the rotational Doppler shift from a white-light source after backscattered by a spinning object. The SLM is encoded with a specific pattern to produce the superposition of different OAM states [31]
Fig.23  Trends, perspectives and opportunities of multiple optical vortices generation [6466]
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