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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2019, Vol. 12 Issue (4) : 405-412
Experimental and simulation assessments of underwater light propagation
Fatah ALMABOUADA1,2(), Manuel Adler ABREU3, João M. P. COELHO3, Kamal Eddine AIADI4
1. Faculté des Mathématiques et des Sciences de la Matière, Département de Physique, Univérsité Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Ouargla 30000, Algérie
2. Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Division Milieux Ionisés & Lasers, Alger 16303, Algérie
3. Laboratório de Óptica, Laser e Sistemas, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Campus do Lumiar, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, Lisboa 1649-038, Portugal
4. Faculté des Mathématiques et des Sciences de la Matière, Laboratoire LENREZA, Univérsité Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Ouargla 30000, Algérie
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This paper investigates the light propagation through several types of water by experimental and simulation. The Zemax-ray tracing software allowed to simulate the propagation of light in water and to observe the receiver response by reproducing the real conditions of propagation. The underwater environment has been reproduced by a 1.2 m long water tube and 20 cm in diameter with a glass window fitted on one side. The use of tap water with different amounts of sand leads toward three types of water with different attenuation coefficients (0.133, 0.343, 0.580 m1). The light transmission in the three types of water was experimentally evaluated using a doubled Nd:YAG laser with energy of 4.3 mJ and a pulse width of 20 ns. Comparisons were done between simulation and experimental results.

Keywords underwater light propagation      attenuation coefficient      telescope      laser range finder     
Corresponding Authors: Fatah ALMABOUADA   
Online First Date: 30 May 2019    Issue Date: 30 December 2019
 Cite this article:   
Fatah ALMABOUADA,Manuel Adler ABREU,João M. P. COELHO, et al. Experimental and simulation assessments of underwater light propagation[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2019, 12(4): 405-412.
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Manuel Adler ABREU
Kamal Eddine AIADI
water type c/m-1
clear ocean 0.151
coastal ocean 0.398
turbid harbor 2.190
Tab.1  Attenuation coefficient of several types of water at l = 530 nm
water type c/m-1
W1: tap water 0.130
W2: tap water+ 250 g of sand 0.343
W3: tap water+ 350 g of sand 0.580
Tab.2  Attenuation coefficients of the three types of water at l = 530 nm
Fig.1  Designed telescope (a) under Zemax software and (b) the detector area window
Fig.2  3-D profile of the receiving telescope
parameter value
laser wavelength/nm 532
transmitted laser power pout/W 2.15´105
estimated laser power at the object/´105 W 1.83, 1.42, 1.07, 0.155
attenuation coefficient of water/m-1 0.130, 0.343, 0.580, 2.190
estimated laser beam diameter at the object/mm 4.36
diameter of the telescope objective Dopt/m 0.05
distance between the object and telescope/m 5 (air) + 1.2 (water)
detector active area diameter/µm 800
temperature of water/℃ 20
Tab.3  Numerical values of parameters and constants for Zemax simulation
Fig.3  (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D profiles of the laser source
Fig.4  (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D profiles of the reflected laser beam recorded in the detector area for W1
Fig.5  (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D profiles of the reflected laser beam recorded in the detector area for W2
Fig.6  (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D profiles of the reflected laser beam recorded in the detector area for W3
Fig.7  (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D profiles of the reflected laser beam recorded in the detector area for turbid harbor
Fig.8  Experimental setups. (1) Hole; (2) water tank; (3) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser; (4) telescope; (5) CCD camera; (6) screen
Fig.9  (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D beam profiles of the laser source
Fig.10  (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D profiles of the reflected laser beam recorded in case of W1 (c = 0.130 m-1)
Fig.11  (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D profiles of the reflected laser beam recorded in case of W2 (c = 0.343 m-1)
Fig.12  (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D profiles of the reflected laser beam recorded in case of W3 (c = 0.580 m-1)
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