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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2019, Vol. 12 Issue (3) : 317-323     https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0861-1
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Edge detection on terahertz pulse imaging of dehydrated cutaneous malignant melanoma embedded in paraffin
Jiayu LI, Yijun XIE, Ping SUN()
Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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Abstract

Terahertz pulse imaging of cutaneous malignant melanoma dehydrated by ethanol and embedded in paraffin was carried out across a frequency range of 0.2–1.4 THz. First, the tissue images based on the time-domain electric-field amplitude information were acquired. Then the areas of normal and cancerous tissues were determined using multi-scale, multi-azimuth and multi-structural element mathematical morphology. The physical meaning of the image was analyzed by calculation of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of cutaneous malignant melanoma in different areas. The refractive index of both normal and cancerous tissues showed anomalous dispersion. The refractive index of cancerous tissues tended to vary between 0.2 and 0.7 THz, while that of normal and fat tissues remain almost unchanged. The absorption of cancerous tissues was higher, with a maximum at 0.37 THz. We concluded that both the refractive index and absorption coefficient differ considerably between normal and cancerous tissues, and the areas of normal and abnormal tissues can be identified using THz pulse imaging combined with mathematical morphology. The method for edge detection of terahertz pulse imaging of cutaneous malignant melanoma provides a reference for the safe surgical removal of malignant tumors.

Keywords terahertz pulse imaging      edge detection      mathematical morphology      cutaneous malignant melanoma      refractive index      absorption coefficient     
Corresponding Authors: Ping SUN   
Just Accepted Date: 31 January 2019   Online First Date: 09 May 2019    Issue Date: 16 September 2019
 Cite this article:   
Jiayu LI,Yijun XIE,Ping SUN. Edge detection on terahertz pulse imaging of dehydrated cutaneous malignant melanoma embedded in paraffin[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2019, 12(3): 317-323.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/10.1007/s12200-019-0861-1
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/Y2019/V12/I3/317
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Jiayu LI
Yijun XIE
Ping SUN
Fig.1  Bulk tissue of human cutaneous malignant melanoma immersed in formalin
Fig.2  Tissue section of human cutaneous malignant melanoma. (a) After dehydration with a thickness of 1.5 mm; (b) embedded in paraffin with a depth of 0.84 mm
dehydration level 1 2 (two times) 3 (two times) 4
ethanol concentration/% 80 95 98 98
time/min 110 100 50 40
Tab.1  Concentration and time for dehydration
Fig.3  Schematic diagram of light propagating. E0 is the incident light; E1 is the reflective signal of paraffin on the surface of the sample; E2 is the reflective signal of tissue at the interface between the paraffin and the cutaneous tissue
Fig.4  Scanning aera and imaging result of tissue section of human cutaneous malignant melanoma: (a) scanning aera of dehydrated tissue section before embedding. (b) Pseudo-color image of the reflective time-domain signal of tissue at the interface between the paraffin and the cutaneous tissue
Fig.5  Extracted edge of the image from Fig. 4(b) and specific points in different image regions including the different information of fat, infiltration and cancer
Fig.6  Fourier-transformed spectrum of specific points on tissue section of human cutaneous malignant melanoma
Fig.7  Refractive index and absorption coefficient of different specific points on Polyline I. (a) Refractive index; (b) absorption coefficient
Fig.8  Clinical manifestations of cutaneous malignant melanoma. (a) Cutaneous malignant melanoma with brown plaques [24]; (b) cell nests formation in the epidermis and dermis [27]; (c) immunohistochemical expression of NRP2 [31]
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