Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2019, Vol. 12 Issue (2) : 148-156
On-chip programmable pulse processor employing cascaded MZI-MRR structure
Yuhe ZHAO, Xu WANG, Dingshan GAO, Jianji DONG(), Xinliang ZHANG
Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Download: PDF(3413 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks

Optical pulse processor meets the urgent demand for high-speed, ultra wideband devices, which can avoid electrical confinements in various fields, e.g., all-optical communication, optical computing technology, coherent control and microwave fields. To date, great efforts have been made particularly in on-chip programmable pulse processing. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a programmable pulse processor employing 16-cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer coupled microring resonator (MZI-MRR) structure based on silicon-on-insulator wafer. With micro-heaters loaded to the device, both amplitude and frequency tunings can be realized in each MZI-MRR unit. Thanks to its reconfigurability and integration ability, the pulse processor has exhibited versatile functions. First, it can serve as a fractional differentiator whose tuning range is 0.51−2.23 with deviation no more than 7%. Second, the device can be tuned into a programmable optical filter whose bandwidth varies from 0.15 to 0.97 nm. The optical filter is also shape tunable. Especially, 15-channel wavelength selective switches are generated.

Keywords integrated optics devices      optical processing      all-optical devices      pulse shaping     
Corresponding Authors: Jianji DONG   
Just Accepted Date: 14 September 2018   Online First Date: 23 October 2018    Issue Date: 03 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
Yuhe ZHAO,Xu WANG,Dingshan GAO, et al. On-chip programmable pulse processor employing cascaded MZI-MRR structure[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2019, 12(2): 148-156.
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Dingshan GAO
Jianji DONG
Xinliang ZHANG
Fig.1  Schematics of 16-cascaded MZI-MRR optical filter on SOI wafer
Fig.2  (a) Microscopic image of the pulse shaper. Zoomed in microscopic picture of (b) the grating coupler, (c) the waveguide, (d) the MZI-MRR structure
Fig.3  (a) Transmission power of the device when different voltages are applied to arc electrodes and (b) rings electrodes
Fig.4  Experimental setup of the differentiator employing the programmable pulse shaper. TLD: tunable laser diode, PC: polarization controller, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, EDFA: Erbium doped optical fiber amplifier, ATT: attenuator, OSC: oscilloscope
Fig.5  Transfer function of (a) 0.5-th order, (b) first order and (c) second order
Fig.6  Experimental results for the fractional-order differentiator based on an MZI-MRR. (a) Input pulse; (b) results of 0.51-th order; (c) 0.68-th order; (d) 0.79-th order; (e) first order; (f) 1.25-th order; (g) second order; and (h) 2.23-th order differentiator
Fig.7  Averaged error of the measured results against calculated results changing with various differential order
Fig.8  Measured (blue solid line) and simulated (red dashed line) transfer functions in several specific shapes. (a) Isosceles triangle shape; (b) and (c) right angled triangle shape; (d) square shape
Fig.9  Measured (blue solid line) and simulated (red dashed line) results for square shape transfer functions in different bandwidths. (a) 0.15 nm bandwidth; (b) 0.2 nm bandwidth; (c) 0.25 nm bandwidth; (d) 0.61 nm bandwidth; (e) 0.83 nm bandwidth; (f) 0.97 nm bandwidth
Fig.10  Measured (blue solid line) and simulated (red dashed line) transfer functions of (a) wavelength selective switches, (b) wavelength selective switches with channel 2, 6 and 11 shut down, (c) wavelength selective switches with ‘V’ shape envelope; (d)−(f) corresponding drop-port transfer function of (a), (b) and (c)
1 M Li, N Zhu. Recent advances in microwave photonics. Frontiers of Optoelectronics, 2016, 9(2): 160–185
2 J Capmany, D Novak. Microwave photonics combines two worlds. Nature Photonics, 2007, 1(6): 319–330
3 A M Weiner. Ultrafast optical pulse shaping: a tutorial review. Optics Communications, 2011, 284(15): 3669–3692
4 J Yao. Photonic generation of microwave arbitrary waveforms. Optics Communications, 2011, 284(15): 3723–3736
5 J Azaña, L R Chen. Synthesis of temporal optical waveforms by fiber Bragg gratings: a new approach based on space-to-frequency-to-time mapping. Journal of the Optical Society of America B, Optical Physics, 2002, 19(11): 2758–2769
6 D E Leaird, A M Weiner. Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping in an integrated-optic configuration. Optics Letters, 2004, 29(13): 1551–1553 pmid: 15259743
7 M Shen, R A Minasian. Toward a high-speed arbitrary waveform generation by a novel photonic processing structure. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2004, 16(4): 1155–1157
8 S Liao, Y Ding, C Peucheret, T Yang, J Dong, X Zhang. Integrated programmable photonic filter on the silicon-on-insulator platform. Optics Express, 2014, 22(26): 31993–31998 pmid: 25607167
9 J Wang, H Shen, L Fan, R Wu, B Niu, L T Varghese, Y Xuan, D E Leaird, X Wang, F Gan, A M Weiner, M Qi. Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip. Nature Communications, 2015, 6(1): 5957 pmid: 25581847
10 A M Weiner. Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2000, 71(5): 1929–1960
11 J D McKinney, I S Lin, A M Weiner. Shaping the power spectrum of ultra-wideband radio-frequency signals. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2006, 54(12): 4247–4255
12 M C Stowe, A Pe'er, J Ye. High resolution atomic coherent control via spectral phase manipulation of an optical frequency comb. In: Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena. Pacific Grove: Optical Society of America, 2006, MD8
13 N K Fontaine, R P Scott, J Cao, A Karalar, W Jiang, K Okamoto, J P Heritage, B H Kolner, S J B Yoo. 32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation. Optics Letters, 2007, 32(7): 865–867 pmid: 17339963
14 Z Jiang, C B Huang, D E Leaird, A M Weiner. Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines. Nature Photonics, 2007, 1(8): 463–467
15 B B C Kyotoku, L Chen, M Lipson. Sub-nm resolution cavity enhanced microspectrometer. Optics Express, 2010, 18(1): 102–107 pmid: 20173828
16 J Chou, Y Han, B Jalali. Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2003, 15(4): 581–583
17 Y Dai, X Chen, H Ji, S Xie. Optical arbitrary waveform generation based on sampled fiber Bragg gratings. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2007, 19(23): 1916–1918
18 M H Khan, H Shen, Y Xuan, L Zhao, S Xiao, D E Leaird, A M Weiner, M Qi. Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper. Nature Photonics, 2010, 4(2): 117–122
19 M Bolea, J Mora, B Ortega, J Capmany. Optical arbitrary waveform generator using incoherent microwave photonic filtering. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2011, 23(10): 618–620
20 H Zhang, W Zou, J Chen. Generation of a widely tunable linearly chirped microwave waveform based on spectral filtering and unbalanced dispersion. Optics Letters, 2015, 40(6): 1085–1088 pmid: 25768188
21 S Yan, S Gao, F Zhou, Y Ding, J Dong, X Cai, X Zhang. Photonic linear chirped microwave signal generation based on the ultra-compact spectral shaper using the slow light effect. Optics Letters, 2017, 42(17): 3299–3302 pmid: 28957088
22 R Ashrafi, M R Dizaji, L R Cortés, J Zhang, J Yao, J Azaña, L R Chen. Time-delay to intensity mapping based on a second-order optical integrator: application to optical arbitrary waveform generation. Optics Express, 2015, 23(12): 16209–16223 pmid: 26193593
23 H Takenouchi, H Tsuda, K Naganuma, T Kurokawa, Y Inoue, K Okamoto. Differential processing of ultrashort optical pulses using arrayed-waveguide grating with phase-only filter. Electronics Letters, 1998, 34(12): 1245–1246
24 S Liao, Y Ding, J Dong, T Yang, X Chen, D Gao, X Zhang. Arbitrary waveform generator and differentiator employing an integrated optical pulse shaper. Optics Express, 2015, 23(9): 12161–12173 pmid: 25969304
25 X Wang, L Zhou, R Li, J Xie, L Lu, K Wu, J Chen. Continuously tunable ultra-thin silicon waveguide optical delay line. Optica, 2017, 4(5): 507
26 Y Liu, A Choudhary, D Marpaung, B J Eggleton. Gigahertz optical tuning of an on-chip radio frequency photonic delay line. Optica, 2017, 4(4): 418
27 M Burla, D Marpaung, L Zhuang, C Roeloffzen, M R Khan, A Leinse, M Hoekman, R Heideman. On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing. Optics Express, 2011, 19(22): 21475–21484 pmid: 22108997
28 A Efimov, D H Reitze. Programmable dispersion compensation and pulse shaping in a 26-fs chirped-pulse amplifier. Optics Letters, 1998, 23(20): 1612–1614 pmid: 18091861
29 C R Doerr, D M Marom, M A Cappuzzo, E Y Chen. 40-Gb/s colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 1000-ps/nm tuning range employing a planar lightwave circuit and a deformable mirror. In: Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. Anaheim: Optical Society of America, 2005, PDP5
30 A M Weiner, F Ferdous, P H Wang, D E Leaird, J Wang, L Fan, L T Varghese, B Niu, Y Xuan, M Qi, H Miao, K Srinivasan, L Chen, V Aksyuk. Microresonator-based optical frequency combs: time-domain studies. In: Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. San Jose: Optical Society of America, 2012, FTh1G.1
31 N K Fontaine, R P Scott, S J B Yoo. Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and detection in InP photonic integrated circuits for Tb/s optical communications. Optics Communications, 2011, 284(15): 3693–3705
32 M S Rasras, I Kang, M Dinu, J Jaques, N Dutta, A Piccirilli, M A Cappuzzo, E Y Chen, L T Gomez, A Wong-Foy, S Cabot, G S Johnson, L Buhl, S S Patel. A programmable 8-bit optical correlator filter for optical bit pattern recognition. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2008, 20(9): 694–696
33 B Zhang, L Zhang, L S Yan, I Fazal, J Y Yang, A E Willner. Continuously-tunable, bit-rate variable OTDM using broadband SBS slow-light delay line. Optics Express, 2007, 15(13): 8317–8322 pmid: 19547161
34 V R Supradeepa, C M Long, R Wu, F Ferdous, E Hamidi, D E Leaird, A M Weiner. Comb-based radiofrequency photonic filters with rapid tunability and high selectivity. Nature Photonics, 2012, 6(3): 186–194
35 J Capmany, B Ortega, D Pastor. A tutorial on microwave photonic filters. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2006, 24(1): 201–229
36 A Meijerink, C G H Roeloffzen, R Meijerink, L Zhuang, D A I Marpaung, M J Bentum, M Burla, J Verpoorte, P Jorna, A Hulzinga, W van Etten. Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—part I: design and performance analysis. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2010, 28(1): 3–18
37 L Zhuang, C G H Roeloffzen, A Meijerink, M Burla, D A I Marpaung, A Leinse, M Hoekman, R G Heideman, W van Etten. Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—part II: experimental prototype. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2010, 28(1): 19–31
38 C Wang, J Yao. Large time-bandwidth product microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber Bragg grating. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2010, 28(11): 1652–1660
39 J Capmany, D Pastor, B Ortega. New and flexible fiber-optic delay-line filters using chirped Bragg gratings and laser arrays. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1999, 47(7): 1321–1326
40 D Marpaung, C Roeloffzen, R Heideman, A Leinse, S Sales, J Capmany. Integrated microwave photonics. Laser & Photonics Reviews, 2013, 7(4): 506–538
41 F M Soares, N K Fontaine, R P Scott, J H Baek, X Zhou, T Su, S Cheung, Y Wang, C Junesand, S Lourdudoss, K Y Liou, R A Hamm, W Wang, B Patel, L A Gruezke, W T Tsang, J P Heritage, S J B Yoo. Monolithic InP 100-channel × 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation. IEEE Photonics Journal, 2011, 3(6): 975–985
42 H Tsuda, Y Tanaka, T Shioda, T Kurokawa. Analog and digital optical pulse synthesizers using arrayed-waveguide gratings for high-speed optical signal processing. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2008, 26(6): 670–677
43 W Zhang, J Yao. Photonic generation of linearly chirped microwave waveform with a large time-bandwidth product using a silicon-based on-chip spectral shaper. In: Proceedings of 2015 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP). Paphos: IEEE, 2015, 1–4
44 R Yang, L Zhou, M Wang, H Zhu, J Chen. Application of SOI microring coupling modulation in microwave photonic phase shifters. Frontiers of Optoelectronics, 2016, 9(3): 483–488
45 S Xiao, M H Khan, H Shen, M Qi. Silicon-on-insulator microring add-drop filters with free spectral ranges over 30 nm. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2008, 26(2): 228–236
46 L Zhuang, C G H Roeloffzen, M Hoekman, K J Boller, A J Lowery. Programmable photonic signal processor chip for radiofrequency applications. Optica, 2015, 2(10): 854–859
47 W Liu, M Li, R S Guzzon, E J Norberg, J S Parker, M Lu, L A Coldren, J Yao. A fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor. Nature Photonics, 2016, 10(3): 190–195
48 Y Xie, L Zhuang, A J Lowery. Picosecond optical pulse processing using a terahertz-bandwidth reconfigurable photonic integrated circuit. Nanophotonics, 2018, 7(5): 837–852
49 W Zhang, J Yao. A fully reconfigurable waveguide Bragg grating for programmable photonic signal processing. Nature Communications, 2018, 9(1): 1396P pmid: 29643383
50 X Xue, Y Xuan, H J Kim, J Wang, D E Leaird, M Qi, A M Weiner. Programmable single-bandpass photonic RF filter based on Kerr comb from a microring. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2014, 32(20): 3557–3565
51 L Chen, N Sherwood-Droz, M Lipson. Compact bandwidth-tunable microring resonators. Optics Letters, 2007, 32(22): 3361–3363 pmid: 18026308
52 M Liu, Y Zhao, X Wang, X Zhang, S Gao, J Dong, X Cai. Widely tunable fractional-order photonic differentiator using a Mach–Zenhder interferometer coupled microring resonator. Optics Express, 2017, 25(26): 33305
53 C Cuadrado-Laborde. All-optical ultrafast fractional differentiator. Optical and Quantum Electronics, 2008, 40(13): 983–990
54 N K Berger, B Levit, B Fischer, M Kulishov, D V Plant, J Azaña. Temporal differentiation of optical signals using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating. Optics Express, 2007, 15(2): 371–381 pmid: 19532253
55 P Orlandi, F Morichetti, M J Strain, M Sorel, P Bassi, A Melloni. Photonic integrated filter with widely tunable bandwidth. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2014, 32(5): 897–907
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Changming CHEN,Daming ZHANG. Cross-cascaded AWG-based wavelength selective switching integrated module using polymer optical waveguide circuits[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2016, 9(3): 428-435.
[2] Ting YANG,Shasha LIAO,Li LIU,Jianji DONG. Large-range tunable fractional-order differentiator based on cascaded microring resonators[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2016, 9(3): 399-405.
[3] Jing DAI,Minming ZHANG,Feiya ZHOU,Deming LIU. Highly efficient tunable optical filter based on liquid crystal micro-ring resonator with large free spectral range[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2016, 9(1): 112-120.
[4] Ming LI,José AZA?A,Ninghua ZHU,Jianping YAO. Recent progresses on optical arbitrary waveform generation[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2014, 7(3): 359-375.
[5] Xiang ZHOU. Enabling technologies and challenges for transmission of 400 Gb/s signals in 50 GHz channel grid[J]. Front Optoelec, 2013, 6(1): 30-45.
[6] Jianji DONG, Yuan YU, Bowen LUO, Dexiu HUANG, Xinliang ZHANG. Simple solutions for photonic power-efficient ultra-wideband system assisted by electrical bandpass filter[J]. Front Optoelec, 2012, 5(4): 403-413.
[7] Zheng ZHANG, Yu YU, Xinliang ZHANG. Simulation for all-optical format conversion from NRZ-DPSK to RZ-DPSK[J]. Front Optoelec Chin, 2011, 4(3): 320-324.
Full text