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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2019, Vol. 12 Issue (2) : 174-179
Origin of peculiar inerratic diffraction patterns recorded by charge-coupled device cameras
Kuanhong XU, Xiaonong ZHU(), Peng HUANG, Zhiqiang Yu, Nan ZHANG()
Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China
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A peculiar and regular diffraction pattern is recorded while using either a color or a monochrome charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to capture the image of the micro air plasma produced by femtosecond laser pulses. The diffraction pattern strongly disturbs the observation of the air plasma, so the origin and eliminating method of these diffraction patterns must be investigated. It is found that the Fourier transform of the periodic surface structure of either the mask mosaic of the color CCD or the pixel array of the monochrome CCD is responsible for the formation of the observed pattern. The residual surface reflection from the protection window of a CCD camera plays the essential role in forming the interesting two-dimensional diffraction spots on the same CCD sensor. Both experimental data and theoretical analyses confirm our understanding of this phenomenon. Therefore removing the protection window of the CCD camera can eliminate these diffraction patterns.

Keywords charge-coupled device (CCD)      scattering      ghost reflection     
Corresponding Authors: Xiaonong ZHU,Nan ZHANG   
Just Accepted Date: 08 August 2018   Online First Date: 22 October 2018    Issue Date: 03 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
Kuanhong XU,Xiaonong ZHU,Peng HUANG, et al. Origin of peculiar inerratic diffraction patterns recorded by charge-coupled device cameras[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2019, 12(2): 174-179.
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Kuanhong XU
Xiaonong ZHU
Zhiqiang Yu
Fig.1  Schematic of experimental setups for imaging the air plasma generated by a femtosecond laser beam propagating in a direction normal to the picture plane (a) and for using a He-Ne laser beam to produce a coherent point source to mimic the origin of the peculiar diffraction pattern (b). In (a), the focused probe laser beam is scattered by the micro plasma and the scattered light is collected by the imaging lens and detected by the CCD camera
Fig.2  Inerratic diffraction patterns captured by a color (a) and a monochrome (b) CCD cameras with 800 nm femtosecond laser pulse illumination. The frame sizes of Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) are 4.8 mm × 3.6 mm and 6.5 mm × 4.8 mm, respectively. In Fig. 2(a), a basic cell of the diffraction pattern is outlined by the rectangle on the left of the central bright spot, which is further described by the pattern given at the up-right corner. In the latter, markers to represent different levels of brightness are used for the purpose of further analysis
Fig.3  Inerratic diffraction patterns captured respectively by a color (a) and monochrome (b) CCD camera with a 632.8 nm He-Ne laser (see Fig. 1(b)). The sizes of Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) are 4.8 mm × 3.6 mm and 6.5 mm × 4.8 mm, respectively
Fig.4  (a) Optical path of the light rays inside a CCD camera with a cover glass whose two surfaces are marked respectively by letters I and II. L1 is the distance between surface of the cover glass and the sensor surface; S′ corresponds to the image of the point source S; S″ is the image of the same point source S formed by consecutive reflection from the sensor surface and the cover glass. (b) Equivalent single lens optical imaging model of the experimental setup associated with (a) and that in Fig. 1
Fig.5  (a) and (b) are the simulated results based on Eq. (1) corresponding to the measured diffraction patterns given in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) respectively. Frame size: (a) 7.7 mm × 5.8 mm, (b) 6.5 mm × 4.8 mm
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