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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2018, Vol. 11 Issue (2) : 116-127     https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0806-0
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Toward the implementation of a universal angle-based optical indoor positioning system
Mark H. BERGEN1, Ferdinand S. SCHAAL2, Richard KLUKAS1, Julian CHENG1(), Jonathan F. HOLZMAN1()
1. Faculty of Applied Science, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
2. Technical University of Denmark, Anker Engelunds Vej 1 Bygning 101A, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
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Abstract

There is an emerging market today for indoor positioning systems capable of working alongside global navigation satellite systems, such as the global positioning system, in indoor environments. Many systems have been proposed in the literature but all of them have fundamental flaws that hold them back from widescale implementation. We review angle-of-arrival (AOA) and angle-difference-of-arrival (ADOA) optical indoor positioning systems which have been proven to be robust, accurate, and easily implementable. We build an AOA/ADOA optical indoor positioning system out of a simple commercial high-speed camera and white light light emitting diodes (LEDs) which operate over a working area of 1 m3, and compare its performance to other indoor positioning methods. The AOA and ADOA systems achieve positioning with low errors of 1.2 and 3.7 cm, respectively.

Keywords angle-of-arrival (AOA)      angle-difference-of-arrival (ADOA)      indoor positioning      optical positioning     
Corresponding Authors: Julian CHENG,Jonathan F. HOLZMAN   
Just Accepted Date: 10 April 2018   Online First Date: 14 May 2018    Issue Date: 04 July 2018
 Cite this article:   
Mark H. BERGEN,Ferdinand S. SCHAAL,Richard KLUKAS, et al. Toward the implementation of a universal angle-based optical indoor positioning system[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2018, 11(2): 116-127.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/10.1007/s12200-018-0806-0
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/Y2018/V11/I2/116
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Mark H. BERGEN
Ferdinand S. SCHAAL
Richard KLUKAS
Julian CHENG
Jonathan F. HOLZMAN
Fig.1  An AOA optical indoor positioning system with two optical beacons, at (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2), and an optical receiver, at (x, y, z). The global frame, having x, y, and z axes, and local frame, having xb, yb, and zb axes, are shown with azimuthal, f, and polar, q, angles in the local frame. © [2017] IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from Ref. [21]
Fig.2  Frequency spectra of the photocurrents measured from the three photodiodes (PDs) of a corner-cube multi-photodiode architecture. Photocurrents I2 and I3 are vertically shifted for clarity. Two optical beacons, one transmitting at 1.2 kHz and the other transmitting at 1.4 kHz, are being detected. © [2012] IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from Ref. [19]
Fig.3  Schematic of the camera architecture from Ref. [22]. In this figure, the local frame is denoted x' y' z', Oc is the center of the image sensor, f is the focal length of the lens, and P is the location of the focal spot. The points Q, T, and L were used in Ref. [22] but are not used in this analysis. © [2017] IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from Ref. [22]
Fig.4  Frequency spectra in dB of three optical beacons as measured by a GoPro Black 3. The optical beacons are modulated at 70, 207, and 319 Hz. Due to the frame rate of the GoPro Black 3, the 207 Hz signal is the alias frequency of 32 Hz, and the 319 Hz signal is the alias frequency of 78 Hz
Fig.5  Curves for DOP and position error for the (a) triangle, (b) square, and (c) hexagon optical beacon geometries. Optical beacons are indicated by hollow white circles. The position error is calculated from the DOP using an AOA error of 1°. © [2015] IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from Ref. [37]
Fig.6  AOA optical indoor positioning system. The optical beacons are denoted by hollow circles and the optical receiver is denoted by the x-y-z coordinate frame. This figure is from the thesis of M. Bergen. It is owned by UBC under a creative commons license and the authors are free to reuse it here (given the publisher’s approval) since it is openly available through cIRcle
Fig.7  Positioning results for an AOA optical indoor positioning system using a GoPro Black 3 as the optical receiver. Estimated positions are indicated by orange ´’s; true positions are indicated by blue circles
Fig.8  Schematic of an ADOA optical indoor positioning system. The mth and nth optical beacons are denoted by the hollow circles at (xm, ym, zm) and (xn, yn, zn), respectively. The optical receiver is denoted by the a solid circle at (x, y, z), and the ADOA between the mth and nth optical beacon is denoted by gm,n. Note that there is no coordinate frame attached to the optical receiver as this information is irrelevant
Fig.9  Positioning results for an ADOA optical indoor positioning system using a GoPro Black 3 as the optical receiver. Estimated positions are indicated by green squares; true positions are indicated by blue circles
method reference year theoretical accuracy experimental accuracy transmitter/receiver technology
optical AOA this work 2018 1.2 cm LEDs/high speed camera
optical ADOA this work 2018 3.7 cm LEDs/high speed camera
optical RSS [5] 2014 5−20 cm
optical RSS [7] 2012 4.4 cm LEDs/photodiode
RF RSS [8] 2015 100−300 cm Wi-Fi
optical TDOA [13] 2011 0.2 cm LEDs/photodiode
ultrasonic TOA [14] 2015 <1 cm specialized ultrasonic equipment
optical TOA [16] 2013 2−5 cm
optical AOA [21] 2017 1.7 cm LEDs/high speed camera
optical ADOA [22] 2018 3.2 cm LEDs/smartphone
RF RSS [25] 2014 200−400 cm bluetooth low energy
RF TOA [29] 2017 0.5−2.5 cm ultra wideband
optical AOA [37] 2015 1−3 cm
Tab.1  Comparison of optical positioning methods
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