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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2017, Vol. 10 Issue (3) : 280-286     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-017-0739-z
Accounting for speed of sound variations in volumetric hand-held optoacoustic imaging
X. Luís DEÁN-BEN1, Ali ÖZBEK1, Daniel RAZANSKY1,2()
1. Institute of Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
2. School of Medicine and School of Bioengineering, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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Hand-held implementations of recently introduced real-time volumetric tomography approaches represent a promising path toward clinical translation of the optoacoustic technology. To this end, rapid acquisition of optoacoustic image data with spherical matrix arrays has attained exquisite visualizations of three-dimensional vascular morphology and function deep in human tissues. Nevertheless, significant reconstruction inaccuracies may arise from speed of sound (SoS) mismatches between the imaged tissue and the coupling medium used to propagate the generated optoacoustic responses toward the ultrasound sensing elements. Herein, we analyze the effects of SoS variations in three-dimensional hand-held tomographic acquisition geometries. An efficient graphics processing unit (GPU)-based reconstruction framework is further proposed to mitigate the SoS-related image quality degradation without compromising the high-frame-rate volumetric imaging performance of the method, essential for real-time visualization during hand-held scans.

Keywords speed of sound (SoS)      graphics processing unit (GPU)     
Corresponding Authors: Daniel RAZANSKY   
Just Accepted Date: 22 August 2017   Online First Date: 14 September 2017    Issue Date: 26 September 2017
 Cite this article:   
X. Luís DEÁN-BEN,Ali ÖZBEK,Daniel RAZANSKY. Accounting for speed of sound variations in volumetric hand-held optoacoustic imaging[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2017, 10(3): 280-286.
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Fig.1  Propagation of an optoacoustic wave generated at an absorbing point within the imaged tissue to the detection point located in the coupling medium. Acoustic refraction takes place at the interface due to a difference in the speed of sound (SoS)
Fig.2  Simulated optoacoustic reconstructions for point absorbers embedded at different depths within the imaged tissue. (a) Location of the five absorbers within the tissue and the detection geometry (blue dots). The values of the speed of sound (SoS) in tissue ct and water cw are indicated. Scalebar – 10 mm. Reconstructed images of the absorbers when assuming a uniform SoS of 1500 and 1590 m/s in the entire medium are shown in (b) and (c), respectively. The region of interest is labeled by a dashed rectangle in (a). Reconstructions obtained by considering the actual SoS distribution with 0 and 10 iterations in Eq. (3) are shown in (d) and (e), respectively
Fig.3  Experimental imaging results for an agar-glycerine phantom with a higher SoS than water containing 200 mm absorbing microspheres. (a)−(c) Reconstructions obtained by considering a uniform SoS of 1505, 1540 and 1575 m/s, respectively. (d) Reconstructions obtained by considering SoS values of 1505 and 1650 m/s in water and the phantom material, respectively. Scalebar – 2 mm. (e) Comparison of the computational time when considering homogeneous (blue triangles) or heterogeneous (red squares) SoS distributions as a function of the number of reconstructed voxels
Fig.4  3D optoacoustic images acquired from a human palm. (a)−(c) Maximum intensity projections along the depth direction for imaging depths ranging from 0 to 4.5 mm. (d)−(f) Maximum intensity projections along the depth direction for imaging depths ranging from 4.5 to 9 mm. First column – reconstructions assuming a uniform SoS of 1510 m/s. Second column – reconstructions assuming a uniform SoS of 1535 m/s. Third column – reconstructed image assuming different SoS in water (1510 m/s) and tissue (1575 m/s). Scalebar – 4 mm
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