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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2015, Vol. 8 Issue (2) : 128-140     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-015-0475-1
REVIEW ARTICLE |
Technology developments and biomedical applications of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography
Zhenyang DING,Chia-Pin LIANG,Yu CHEN()
Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
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Abstract

Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) enables depth-resolved mapping of sample polarization information, such as phase-retardation and optical axis orientation, which is particularly useful when the nano-scale organization of tissue that are difficult to be observed in the intensity images of a regular optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this review, we survey two types of methods and systems of PS-OCT. The first type is PS-OCT with single input polarization state, which contain bulk optics or polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) based systems and single-mode fiber (SMF) based systems. The second type is PS-OCT with two different input polarization states, which contain SMF based systems and PMF based systems, through either time, frequency, or depth multiplexing. In addition, representative biomedical applications using PS-OCT, such as retinal imaging, skin cancer detection, and brain mapping, are demonstrated.

Keywords optical coherence tomography (OCT)      polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)      polarization      imaging     
Corresponding Authors: Yu CHEN   
Just Accepted Date: 04 February 2015   Issue Date: 24 June 2015
 Cite this article:   
Zhenyang DING,Chia-Pin LIANG,Yu CHEN. Technology developments and biomedical applications of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2015, 8(2): 128-140.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/10.1007/s12200-015-0475-1
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/Y2015/V8/I2/128
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Zhenyang DING
Chia-Pin LIANG
Yu CHEN
type sub-type pros cons reference
single input polarization state PMF and bulk optics ? simple algorithm? no need for calibration? stable ? ghost peak? high cost? no local birefringence? no diattenuation [1,38-42]
SMF ? simple system and algorithm? low cost? no ghost peak ? need calibration? not very stable? no local birefringence? no diattenuation [43,44]
two input polarization states SMF ? local birefringence? diattenuation ? complex system (modulation or multiplex)? high cost? complex algorithm [19,23,45,46]
PMF and bulk optics ? local birefringence? diattenuation ? complex system (modulation or multiplex)? high cost? complex algorithm [30,47-50]
Tab.1  Summary of different PS-OCT configurations
Fig.1  Scheme of sweep-source PS-OCT with PM fiber using single input polarization state [42]. PC, polarization controller; QWP, quarter wave plate; M, mirror; XY scan, galvo scanner; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; BPD, balanced photodetector; DAQ, data acquisition card. Reproduced from Ref. [42] with permission
Fig.2  Schematic diagram of a fiber-based PS-OCT with two different input polarization state [23]. Pol. Mod., polarization modulator; Pol., polarization controller. In the case of time-domain and spectral-domain OCTs, the light source is a broadband light source. It is a wavelength-swept light source for swept-source OCT. PDX and PDY are photodetection devices to detect the orthogonal polarization axes X and Y. Photodetection devices are photodetectors for time-domain and swept-source OCTs, and they are spectrometers for spectral-domain OCT. Typically the polarizer is introduced in the reference arm to deliver the same optical power of reference beam to two photodetectors. Reproduced from Ref. [23] with permission
Fig.3  Schematic diagram of a PS-OCT using frequency multiplexing [46]. WSL, wavelength-swept laser, RM, reference mirror; PDD, polarization diverse detection; PBS, polarization beam splitter; FS, frequency shifter; DC, directional coupler. Two polarization states occupy different electrical frequency bands, so the two polarization channels can be acquired simultaneously and demultiplexed in data processing. Reproduced from Ref. [46] with permission
Fig.4  Swept-source / Fourier domain OCT with a passive polarization delay unit [19]. (a) Scheme of PS-OCT with a polarization delay. The sample and reference beam interfere at the non-polarizing beam splitter and are then split up into orthogonal polarization X and Y by a polarizion beam splitters. The two orthogonal polarization channels are detected by two balanced photodetectors. (b) Scheme of the passive delay unit. (c) Representative image of the location difference between the orthogonal detection channels. The OCT signals originating from the two incident states are separated by ?z in depth. PC, polarization controller; PDU: polarization delay unit; GS, galvanometer scanner; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; NPBS, non-polarizing beam splitter; QWP, quarter wave plate; M, mirror. Reproduced from Ref. [19] with permission
Fig.5  Wide field PS-OCT imaging of the human retina [19]. (a) Fundus projection image. As indicated in the color fundus photo (b). (c) Reflectivity B-scan image on the location indicated by the arrow in (a). (d) Corresponding phase retardation image (color scale: 0°- 180°). Increasing phase retardation due to RNFL birefringence can be observed by a color change from blue to yellow. (e) Wide field fundus image of phase retardation (color scale: 0° - 27°). Strong birefringence can be observed around the optic disk along the nerve fiber bundles. (f) Scanning laser polarimetry image of the same eye taken with the Zeiss GDx. Color map below. The scanned area of 15° × 15° is indicated by the dashed rectangle in (e). Reproduced from Ref. [19] with permission
Fig.6  Representative histological (left column), intensity (middle column), and phase retardation (right column) images obtained from the same or similar locations in healthy (top row), endogenous BCC (top row), and allograft BCC (bottom row) mouse skin tissue. White arrows indicate location of tumors. The scale bars are applicable to all images [11]. Reproduced from Ref. [11] with permission
Fig.7  Microscopy image (a) and reconstructed MC-OCT en-face images (b-d) of a sagittal rat brain section, with comparison of anatomy (f) [35]. Structures are labeled on the microscope image (a): cp, cerebral peduncle; CPu, caudate putamen; fi, fimbria; GP, globus pallidus; HIPP, hippocampus; ic- internal capsule; ml, medial lemniscus; opt, optic tract; SN, substania nigra; TH, thalamus; ZI, zona incerta. Leftward arrow: cranial; upward arrow: dorsal. Reconstructed brain maps of reflectivity (b), phase retardance (c), optic axis orientation (d) and combined image for tractography (e) are shown. The arrows in (d) indicate three groups of fiber bundles with different orientations. The image in (f) is modified from The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates with permission. Abbreviations of structures: bic, brachium of the inferior colliculus; bsc, brachium of the superior colliculus; cp, cerebral peduncle; eml- external medullary lamina; fi- fimbria; ic, internal capsule; ml, medial lemniscus; opt, optic tract; st, stria terminalis; str, superior thalamic radiation [35]. Reproduced from Ref. [35] with permission
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