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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (3) : 413-427     DOI: 10.1007/s11783-016-0832-3
REVIEW ARTICLE |
Chemical poison and regeneration of SCR catalysts for NOx removal from stationary sources
Junhua LI1,*(),Yue PENG1,2,Huazhen CHANG3,Xiang LI1,John C. CRITTENDEN2,Jiming HAO1
1. State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, 800 West Peachtree Street, Suite 400 F-H, Atlanta, GA 30332-0595, United States
3. School of Environment and Natural Resource, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
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Abstract

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3 is an effective technique to remove NOx from stationary sources, such as coal-fired power plant and industrial boilers. Some of elements in the fly ash deactivate the catalyst due to strong chemisorptions on the active sites. The poisons may act by simply blocking active sites or alter the adsorption behaviors of reactants and products by an electronic interaction. This review is mainly focused on the chemical poisoning on V2O5-based catalysts, environmental-benign catalysts and low temperature catalysts. Several common poisons including alkali/alkaline earth metals, SO2 and heavy metals etc. are referred and their poisoning mechanisms on catalysts are discussed. The regeneration methods of poisoned catalysts and the development of poison-resistance catalysts are also compared and analyzed. Finally, future research directions in developing poisoning resistance catalysts and facile efficient regeneration methods for SCR catalysts are proposed.

Keywords flue gas      DeNOx      SCR catalyst      poison and regeneration     
Corresponding Authors: Junhua LI   
Online First Date: 16 March 2016    Issue Date: 05 April 2016
 Cite this article:   
Junhua LI,Yue PENG,Huazhen CHANG, et al. Chemical poison and regeneration of SCR catalysts for NOx removal from stationary sources[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2016, 10(3): 413-427.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-016-0832-3
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2016/V10/I3/413
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Junhua LI
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Xiang LI
John C. CRITTENDEN
Jiming HAO
Fig.1  The plugged (a) and deactivated (b) SCR catalysts
catalysts preparation methods(calcination temperature) reaction conditions highest NOx conversion(temperature range) source
V-based catalyst
V2O5/TiO2 Sol-gel (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.5%, 5%O2, 13,500 h-1 ≥90% (450–500℃) [29]
V2O5-SO42-/TiO2 Sol-gel (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.5%, 5%O2, 13,500 h-1 100% (370–500℃) [6]
V2O5-WO3/TiO2 impregnation (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 3%O2, 70,000 h-1 100% (300–450℃) [30]
V2O5-MoO3/TiO2 impregnation (550℃) NH3 = NO= 0.08%, 0.9%O2 100% (280–400℃) [31]
V2O5-CeO2-WO3/TiO2 impregnation (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 3%O2, 28,000 h-1 100% (250–450℃) [22]
Ce-based catalyst
CeO2/TiO2 co-precipitation (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5.3%O2, 25,000 h-1 100% (170–350℃) [32]
CeO2-WO3 homogeneous precipitation(500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5%O2, 250,000 h-1 ≥97% (225–450℃) [23,33]
CeO2-MO3 impregnation (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5%O2, 120,000 h-1 ≥90% (300–350℃) [25]
CeO2-WO3/TiO2 homogeneous precipitation(500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5%O2, 100,000 h-1 100% (225–450℃) [27]
CeO2-MO3/TiO2 impregnation (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5%O2, 128,000 h-1 ≥90% (270–400℃) [34]
Mn-based catalyst
MnOx precipitation(350℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5%O2, 50,000 h-1 100% (100–150℃) [35]
MnOx/AC/C impregnation (400℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 3%O2, 10,610 h-1 95% (250℃) [36]
MnOx–CeO2 co-precipitation (650℃) NH3 = NO= 0.1%, 2%O2, 42,000 h-1 100% (120–150℃) [37]
MnOx–CuO co-precipitation (350℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%,5%O2, 30000 h-1 100% (50–200℃) [38]
MnOx–WO3 co-precipitation (600℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5%O2, 50,000 h-1 100% (70–200℃) [39]
MnOx/TiO2 impregnation (400℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5%O2, 50,000 h-1 100% (150–200℃) [40]
Fe-based catalyst
FeOx–MnOx co-precipitation (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.1%, 2%O2, 15,000 h-1 100% (120–180℃) [41]
Fe2(SO4)3/TiO2 impregnation (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5%O2, 80,000 h-1 ≥90% (350–450℃) [42]
FeOx–WO3 co-precipitation (500℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 3%O2, 60,000 h-1 100% (250–400℃) [43]
FeOx/TiO2 co-precipitation (400℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 5%O2, 50,000 h-1 ≥95% (250–350℃) [20]
Zeolite catalyst
Cu-SSZ commercial NH3 = NO= 0.035%, CO2 = H2O= 5%, 14%O2, 30,000 h-1 ≥90% (200–400℃) [44]
Cu-SAPO commercial NH3 = NO= 0.035%, CO2 = H2O= 5%, 14%O2, 30,000 h-1 ≥80% (200–350℃) [26]
Fe-ZSM-5 ion exchange(600℃) NH3 = NO= 0.035%, 2%H2O, 5%O2, 30,000 h-1 ≥80% (350–450℃) [45]
Fe-HBEA ion exchange(550℃) NH3 = NO= 0.05%, 3%O2, 160,000 h-1 ≥90% (300–550℃) [46]
Tab.1  Research results on several kinds of SCR catalysts in literature
Fig.2  Schematic of K2O poisoning on ceria-based catalyst
Fig.3  Deactivation mechanisms of CaSO4 on catalyst surface
Fig.4  Proposed scheme for correlation of basic sites and redox properties for poisoning of metal oxides catalysts in SCR reaction [90]. LT means low temperature, HT means high temperature, 1st means standard SCR reaction, 2nd means fast SCR reaction, 3rd means NSCR reaction, and 4th means catalysts deactivation
Fig.5  Poisoning and regeneration mechanism of As poisoned commercial SCR catalysts
catalysts poisons solutions conditions
V2O5-WO3/TiO2 [17,60,146,147] alkali metals H2SO4 solution washing
V2O5-WO3/TiO2 [64] alkali metals electrophoresis washing
V2O5-WO3/TiO2 [148] K, Ca, Mg ethanol solution microwave
V2O5-WO3/TiO2 [139,146] arsenic H2O2 solution washing
V2O5-WO3/TiO2 [136] arsenic NaOH/H2O2; Ca(NO3)2 washing
TiO2-ZrO2-CeO2/ATS [71] alkali metals H2SO4 washing
CeO2-WO3 [72] alkali metals H2O washing
CeO2-WO3 [102] SO2 0.1 vol% H2 300℃
Mn-Ce/TiO2 [106] SO2 H2O microwave
Tab.2  Regeneration methods of SCR catalysts
Fig.6  Regeneration process sketch of used commercial SCR catalysts
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