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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (3) : 37
Elimination of antibiotic resistance genes and control of horizontal transfer risk by UV-based treatment of drinking water: A mini review
Virender K. Sharma1(), Xin Yu2, Thomas J. McDonald1, Chetan Jinadatha3,4, Dionysios D. Dionysiou5, Mingbao Feng1
1. Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
2. Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
3. Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple, TX 76504, USA
4. College of Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Bryan, TX 77807, USA
5. Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (DChEE), 705 Engineering Research Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
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Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes are in water bodies.

UV/chlorination method is better to remove ARGs than UV or chlorination alone.

Research on UV/hydrogen peroxide to eliminate ARGs is forthcoming.

UV-based photocatalytic processes are effective to degrade ARGs.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been recognized as one of the biggest public health issues of the 21st century. Both ARB and ARGs have been determined in water after treatment with conventional disinfectants. Ultraviolet (UV) technology has been seen growth in application to disinfect the water. However, UV method alone is not adequate to degrade ARGs in water. Researchers are investigating the combination of UV with other oxidants (chlorine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxymonosulfate (PMS), and photocatalysts) to harness the high reactivity of produced reactive species (Clž·, ClOž·ž, Clž2·ž, žž·OH, and SOž4ž·€) in such processes with constituents of cell (e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its components) in order to increase the degradation efficiency of ARGs. This paper briefly reviews the current status of different UV-based treatments (UV/chlorination, UV/H2O2, UV/PMS, and UV-photocatalysis) to degrade ARGs and to control horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in water. The review also provides discussion on the mechanism of degradation of ARGs and application of q-PCR and gel electrophoresis to obtain insights of the fate of ARGs during UV-based treatment processes.

Keywords Antibiotic resistance bacteria      Advanced oxidation processes      Disinfection      Reactive chlorine species      Sulfate radicals      Reactive oxygen species     
This article is part of themed collection: Environmental Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance (Xin Yu, Hui Li & Virender K. Sharma)
Corresponding Authors: Virender K. Sharma   
Issue Date: 06 June 2019
 Cite this article:   
Virender K. Sharma,Xin Yu,Thomas J. McDonald, et al. Elimination of antibiotic resistance genes and control of horizontal transfer risk by UV-based treatment of drinking water: A mini review[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2019, 13(3): 37.
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Virender K. Sharma
Xin Yu
Thomas J. McDonald
Chetan Jinadatha
Dionysios D. Dionysiou
Mingbao Feng
Fig.1  Logarithmic relative concentration of the transforming activity (green color star) and ampR qPCR amplicons (192 bps (trigonal), 400 bps (circle), 603 bps (square) and 851 bps (diamond)) as a function of UV fluence during treatment of ((a) and (b)) intracellular and ((c) and (d)) extracellular pUC19 with ((a) and (c)) UV and ((b) and (d)) UV/H2O2 ([H2O2]0 = 10 mg/L) at pH 7.0. The symbols represent the measured data and the error bars represent one standard deviation from triplicate experiments. The lines are linear regressions of the data. (Adapted from (Yoon et al., 2018) with the permission of the Royal Society of Chemistry).
Fig.2  ((a), left) Total bacteria abundance in the feed and filtrate obtained from UF experiments. The secondary wastewater effluent was filtered by the pristine PVDF and TiO2-modified PVDF membranes until the permeate volume reached 250 mL, at a pressure of 1.4 bar (20 psi) and temperature of 25.0°C±0.5°C. ((a), right) Photocatalytic degradation of total bacteria on the surface of the pristine PVDF and TiO2-modified PVDF membranes before and after exposure to UV for 1 h. (b) CFU of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) on the surfaces of the pristine PVDF membrane and TiO2-modified PVDF membrane, respectively, before and after exposure to UV irradiation, measured via spread plate method. Microscopic images of ARB are shown in the inset with a 2-mm scale bar. (Adapted from (Ren et al., 2018) with the permission of the American Chemical Society).
Fig.3  Photocatalytic degradation of ARGs and integrons on the surface of pristine PVDF and TiO2-modified PVDF membranes after UV treatment. ARGs and integrons in genome ((a), (b)) and plasmid ((c), (d)) were extracted using bacteria DNA kit and plasmid kit, respectively, and analyzed via quantitative PCR method (Adapted from (Ren et al., 2018) with the permission of the American Chemical Society).
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