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Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering

Front. Agr. Sci. Eng.
RESEARCH ARTICLE
A comparison of the biological activities of ethyl acetate fractions from the stems and leaves of Penthorum chinense Pursh
Zhaolei WANG1, Kai JIANG1, Qinchao DING1, Shujun LIU2, Xiaobing DOU1, Bin DING1()
1. College of Life Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China
2. Beijing Stomatological Hospital/School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China
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Abstract

Penthorum chinense Pursh (PCP) is a popular traditional medicinal plant in China, widely used for the treatment of a variety of liver diseases. Although it has been long recognized that the main active elements of PCP are contained in ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), little is known so far in terms of the relative effectiveness of EAF derived from the stems versus leaves of this plant. In the current study, we prepared EAF by reflux extraction and sequential extraction from the stems (SEAF) and leaves (LEAF) of PCP and tested their hepatoprotective efficacies. The extract rates and flavonoid contents of LEAF were higher than those of SEAF. EAFs (>50 μg·mL1) prevented lipid accumulation in cells and protected against lipotoxicity injury when the concentration exceeded 25 μg·mL1. More than 95% free radicals released by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were eliminated by 25 μg·mL1 SEAF and 50 μg·mL1 LEAF, respectively. Further, EAFs (25 μg·mL1) also showed protective antioxidant effects, with the activity of LEAF being significantly higher than that of SEAF. EAFs (10 mg·mL1) also showed similar unspecific bacteriostatic activity. In comparison with SEAF, LEAF contained more flavonoids and had a higher anti-oxidation capability and for these reasons we suggest it should be better for clinical use.

Keywords antibacterial      anti-oxidation      lipid accumulation      lipotoxicity      Penthorum chinense Pursh     
Corresponding Authors: Bin DING   
Just Accepted Date: 31 May 2019   Online First Date: 28 June 2019   
 Cite this article:   
Zhaolei WANG,Kai JIANG,Qinchao DING, et al. A comparison of the biological activities of ethyl acetate fractions from the stems and leaves of Penthorum chinense Pursh[J]. Front. Agr. Sci. Eng. , 28 June 2019. [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019271.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fase/EN/10.15302/J-FASE-2019271
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fase/EN/Y/V/I/0
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Zhaolei WANG
Kai JIANG
Qinchao DING
Shujun LIU
Xiaobing DOU
Bin DING
Fig.1  Cell protective efficiency of SEAF and LEAF against OA induced lipid accumulation. (a) The images of BODIPY stained HepG2 cells; (b) the relative TG content. Control (C) and model (M) groups are untreated and 0.5 mmol·L1 OA treated HepG2 cell groups, respectively. The others are sample groups that 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg·mL1 SEAF and LEAF protected HepG2 cell groups, against 0.5 mmol·L1 OA treatment. # indicates significant difference between the C and M groups; * indicates significant difference between the sample and M groups; NS indicates nonsignificant difference between the same concentrations of SEAF and LEAF (P<0.05).
Fig.2  Lipotoxicity attenuation efficiency of SEAF and LEAF against PA induced cell injury, measured as the relative amounts of released LDH. Control (C) and model (M) groups are untreated and 0.5 mmol·L1 PA treated HepG2 cell groups, respectively. The others are sample groups that 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg·mL1 SEAF and LEAF protected HepG2 cell groups, against 0.5 mmol·L1 PA treatment. # indicates significant difference between the C group and M group; * indicates significant difference between the sample group and M group; NS indicates nonsignificant difference between the same concentrations of SEAF and LEAF (P<0.05).
Sample Relative amount of released LDH (fold of control)
0 12.5 25 50 100
SEAF 7.97±0.19 5.22±0.39 4.46±0.04 3.26±0.41 1.15±0.30
LEAF 7.97±0.19 5.69±0.47 5.02±0.02 3.51±0.15 1.56±0.68
Tab.1  Relative amount of released LDH in PA treated HepG2 assays protected by different concentrations of EAFs (mg·mL1)
Fig.3  DPPH free radical clearance activities of SEAF and LEAF. * indicates significant difference between SEAF and LEAF (P<0.05).
Fig.4  Cell protective efficiency of SEAF and LEAF against H2O2 oxidative damage. (a)The images of Hoechst stained HepG2 cells; (b) the relative amounts of released LDH. Control (C) and model (M) groups are untreated and 0.4 mmol·L1 H2O2 treated HepG2 cells, respectively. The others are sample groups that 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg·mL1 SEAF and LEAF protected HepG2 cell groups, against 0.4 mmol·L1 H2O2 treatment. # indicates significant differences between the M and the C. * indicates significant differences between the EAF sample groups and M group. NS and ** indicate nonsignificant or significant differences, respectively, between the same concentrations of SEAF and LEAF (P<0.05).
Sample Relative amount of released LDH (fold of control)
0 12.5 25 50 100
SEAF 4.20 ± 0.08 4.12 ± 0.23 3.70 ± 0.06 2.68 ± 0.14 2.07 ± 0.04
LEAF 4.20 ± 0.08 4.20 ± 0.09 2.90 ± 0.03 1.90± 0.14 1.50 ± 0.15
Tab.2  Relative amount of released LDH in H2O2 treated HepG2 assays protected by different concentrations of EAFs (mg·mL1)
Sample Inhibitory zone diameter/mm
Escherichia coli ATCC35218 Bacillus subtilis
CMCC1.1470
Enterococcus faecalis
ATCC29212
Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC29213
Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC43300
SEAF 13.50 ± 0.71 10.83 ± 0.58 9.33 ± 0.58 10.33 ± 0.58 10.75 ± 0.35
LEAF 10.50 ± 0.41 10.83 ± 0.68 9.32 ± 0.68 9.53 ± 0.58 11.25 ± 0.35
Tab.3  Inhibitory zone diameter (mean ± SD) of SEAF and LEAF against different bacterial strains
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