Dec 2008, Volume 2 Issue 4

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  • CHEN Yiyi, BIAN Ruoning
    Impact effect of sudden fracture at steel frame connections under severe earthquake or other extreme loads is presented in this paper. The relation of impulse caused by structural fracture to the release of inner force at the cracked location, the magnitude of the response to impact on the basis of one degree of freedom model, and the ratio of the peak value of response to natural period of the system are investigated. Two types of fracture tests were designed and carried out both on uniaxial steel bar tensioned and moment resistant steel frame model. It is proven that the response during the fracture process can be measured quite well using high-frequency data processing system. It is also revealed that the instant fracture of structural connection is characterized by progressive and partial fracture. Numerical evaluation of the impact effect of connection fracture is carried out.
  • SUN Yuedong, XIAO Jianzhuang, ZHOU Deyuan
    A study is conducted on the seismic behavior of one natural concrete frame and two recycled concrete frames with 100% recycled coarse aggregate whose scales are 1:2 entirely, and a comparative study is conducted under low-reversed cyclic lateral loading and different vertical loading. This work aims to estimate the failure mechanism, hysteresis loops, displacement ductility, deterioration of strength and stiffness and energy dissipation of recycled concrete frames under low-reversed cyclic loading as well as the influence of different vertical loading. Analysis on the basis of the experiment proves that it is entirely feasible to apply recycled concrete to practical engineering for the sake of its good seismic behaviors. Theoretical base is provided for further study and practical application of recycled concrete structure.
  • XUE Weichen, LIU Zhenyong, JIANG Dongsheng
    Based on experimental results of prestressed concrete spatial connections, nonlinear finite element models were established to analyze the shear capacity of spatial connections and parametric studies were performed using ANSYS. It is found that the shear capacity of spatial connection is influenced by joint hoop, beam prestress, column compressive load, and direction of resultant shear force. The parametric studies also indicate that the shear capacity of spatial connection under biaxial cyclic loading is lower than that of corresponding connections under plane loading. A design formula for calculating the shear capacity of spatial connections is proposed based on the parametric studies and verified by the available test results.
  • CHEN Yue, HU Kai
    As for the optimal design of steel portal frames, due to both the complexity of cross selections of beams and columns and the discreteness of design variables, it is difficult to obtain satisfactory results by traditional optimization. Based on a set of constraints of the Technical Specification for Light-weighted Steel Portal Frames of China, a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization program for portal frames, written in MATLAB code, was proposed in this paper. The graph user interface (GUI) is also developed for this optimal program, so that it can be used much more conveniently. Finally, some examples illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the genetic-algorithm-based optimal program.
  • WANG Huailiang, SONG Yupu
    In order to meet the requirement for nonlinear analysis and design of mass concrete structures, the deformation behavior and strength of three-graded concrete specimens 250 mm × 250 mm × 400 mm with a maximum aggregate size of 80 mm and the corresponding wet-screened concrete specimens 150 mm × 150 mm × 300 mm with a maximum aggregate size of 40 mm were studied experimentally. Specimens subjected to biaxial compression-tension (C-T) and triaxial compression-compression-tension (C-C-T) stress states. Test data indicate that both the deformation and strength of the mass concrete specimens are lower than those of the corresponding wet-screened concrete small specimens, but the initial tangent modulus of the stress-strain curve of the former is greater than that of the latter. Test results show that the wet-screened effect and size effect of the specimens under complex stress states are obvious such that these should be considered in the design of mass concrete structures. In addition, respective failure criteria for mass concrete in principal stress space and octahedron stress space are proposed.
  • ZHENG Dan
    The process of propagation, kinking of micro-cracks in concrete and the interaction among cracks as well as the induced failure were analyzed using the model that describes the wing type crack from the point of view of micromechanics. The pseudo-force method is applied to calculate the compressive strength factor of kinky propagated crack taking into account the effect of interaction among cracks. On the assumption that the micro fracture toughness of concrete does not vary with stain rate, the static and dynamic strength of concrete under different confinements can be calculated. The comparison of calculation result with experimental data indicates that a good agreement is achieved which implies that the model can be used to explain the rate-dependent properties of concrete in multi-axial stress state.
  • DU Jianguo, LIN Gao
    Based on the reduced set of base function in scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM), an improved time domain numerical approach for the dynamic structure-foundation interaction analysis was proposed. With reasonable choice of the number of base functions, the degrees of freedom on the structure-foundation interface were reduced and the associated computation for the calculation of convolution integral was greatly reduced. The results of this proposed approach applied to the calculation of a gravity dam and an arch dam. The acceleration frequency response functions were calculated and the influences affected by different reduced set of base functions as well as full set were compared. It was found that a higher degree of reduced set of base functions resulted in a significant increase of computational efficiency but a little bit of loss in accuracy. When the reduced set was decreased by 60%, the efficiency may be increased to up to five times, while the loss of accuracy of peak value of response will be less than 4%. It may be concluded that the proposed approach is suitable for large-scale structure-foundation interaction analysis.
  • XIONG Kun, HE Yunlong, PENG Yunfeng
    Hardfill dam is a new type of dam which has the advantages of low stress level and even stress distribution in a dam body, resulting in low demands to foundations. Based on 2D linear elastic and elasto-plastic calculations of gravity dam and Hardfill dam using finite element method (FEM), the stress distribution in a dam body and anti-sliding stabilization is analyzed on the geological faulted foundations with weak weathered rock and soft interlayers. It is concluded that Hardfill dams have better adaptability to geological faulted foundations than gravity dams and is more secure and economically sound.
  • ZHU Hehua, LIAO Shaoming, XU Qianwei, ZHENG Qizhen
    Deep sedimentary deposits of soft clays are widely distributed in coastal areas as well as many interior major cities in China. In order to study the stratum adaptability of earth pressure balance (EPB) shield machine tunneling in such types of soft ground, model tests of tunneling excavation, using the running tunnel of the Shanghai Metro Line M8 as a background, are carried out with different over burden ratios, opening rates of cutter head, driving speeds and rotation speeds of screw conveyor. Based on the test results, the interrelationships between chamber pressure and mucking efficiency, mucking rate and driving speed, thrust force and torque are obtained. The influences of tunnel depth, opening rate of cutter head and driving speed on thrust force and torque are revealed. Such findings can not only facilitate establishing relationships between shield working parameters and soil properties, but also serve as a guide for the design and construction of shield tunnel in soft ground.
  • YUAN Yuqing, WANG Xuancang, ZHOU Xin
    Unlike other road materials, aeolian sand has some compaction characteristics that are key factors in construction qualities of highway in the desert. In order to study the characteristics, a series of laboratory and field tests were performed, including sieve analysis, standard modified compaction, vibrating compaction and field test. By analyzing the sieve analysis test data, it was found that the gradation of aeolian sand was bad, with fine grains whose diameters mostly ranged from 0.25 mm to 0.074 mm. Then, from the laboratory compaction test results, a compaction curve similar to the horizontally-written letter S was obtained. That was quite different from the other kinds of road materials. There were two peak values in the curve with the increase of water content, which was the special characteristic of aeolian sand: to be well compacted whether it was dry or wet. Also, according to laboratory vibrating test results, the best vibrating frequency range was proposed. It was from 45 Hz to 50 Hz. Moreover, some field compaction tests were carried out. On the construction site of the highway, the aeolian sand subgrade was compacted in the condition of natural water content with optimizing construction machines. Its compaction degree reached 96%, meeting the current specifications. At last, comparative studies were carried through with electron microscope. It was shown that the microstructure of compacted dry aeolian sand is much denser than that of the natural one in the field test.
  • LI Xiaozhao, ZHAO Xiaobao, WANG Zhongsheng
    Through field investigation, this paper examined the changes of ecological conditions induced by tunnel construction in Laoshan Mountain area, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, P. R. China. The effects of habitat fragmentation and edge effect are examined and discussed. It is found that the environmental factors and vegetation situation have been influenced by the tunneling activity, and the disturbed area is approaching the sampling patch centre. The changed ecological conditions are beneficial for the settlement and growth of some herb and shrub species, and are unfavorable for the existence and growth of saplings, especially for the predominant species (e.g., robur) in this area. If the time of habitat fragmentation is long enough and there is no supplement from external areas, some vegetation species in the engineering influencing area will deteriorate, or even diminish in the future. The results can be used as a reference for the long-term ecological study in this area.
  • CHEN Xiaoyang, ZHONG Dekun
    From angle of economy this paper tries to establish the outlook on appropriate technique effect by reconsidering the cost and economics. In light of the current situation of domestic technique and the relevant living example, it proposes the basic tactics for innovation of the appropriate technique and for low-tech strategy.
  • LI Xinjian, ZHU Guangya
    Starting from the reconstruction planning for the Chongyuan Temple in Suzhou Industrial Park, the planners explored the elements of contemporary Buddhism architecture planning and design in terms of the social multi-requirement, environmental utilization fitted for a given time and place, appropriate temple pattern on specification and institution, functional division for harmonic relationship between monks and laymen, etc. For realization of historic mission: carrying forward the cultural tradition and constructing harmonic society, this paper proposes some principles of creation, which have historical evidence and are keeping pace with the times.
  • NIU Li, XU Leiqing, TANG Zhong
    The authors brought forward the definition of “Gestalt space” and indicated this kind of space can be easily cognized. Three experiments showed that “classification” and “grouping” are the human strategies to solve wayfinding problems. “Similarity” and “Legibility” of the space are advantageous to help people to complete wayfinding tasks. The designer should provide the essential “Legibility” in Gestalt space, by using some techniques such as “break” and “accession” to settle the wayfinding problem.
  • WANG Suda, TANG Zhengguang, NING Xiaojun, WU Peiguan, XING Pingyi
    The permeability coefficient of pavement material is a very important parameter in designing the drainage of pavement structures and is also used to evaluate the quality of road construction. New equipment is used to measure the permeability coefficient of the pavement drilling core sample and relevant testing methods are introduced. Testing drilling core samples from a certain highway of Yunnan province has been proven to be feasible. The test results are also analyzed.
  • CHEN Shudong, SUN Wei, ZHANG Yunsheng, GUO Fei
    Based on accelerated carbonation test, 1D, 2D and 3D carbonation of high performance concrete with different fly ash contents (0%, 15%, 20%, 40%, 60%) were studied. The interaction coefficients of 2D and 3D carbonation are defined. The time-dependent coefficient n of carbon dioxide diffusion and the interaction coefficients K of 2D and 3D carbonation are analyzed. The mathematical model which includes n and K is deduced. The experiments indicate that 2D and 3D carbonation have obvious interaction. Interaction coefficients obey the attenuation function through time t. The mathematical model of 2D and 3D carbonation life prediction based on Fick scattering law can be solved by Fourier expansion. The life prediction of concrete of Sutong Bridge beam shows that the 1D, 2D, 3D carbonation prediction life are 1595 a, 882 a and 758 a, respectively, 2D and 3D carbonation life predicted are reduced clearly.