Jun 2008, Volume 2 Issue 2

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  • CHEN Yu, ZHAO Xianzhong, CHEN Yiyi
    A finite element model simulating an experiment on unstiffened, overlapped circular hollow structure (CHS) K-joints was generated and validated by comparing the ultimate capacities, deformation processes and failure modes of the experimental results. Using this model, the stress distribution, propagation of plasticity and the failure modes of overlapped joints with through-brace-in-compression and welded hidden seams were analyzed. The effect of geometric parameters, with or without hidden welds, and the loading hierarchy reversal of braces on the ultimate capacity of the joints were also studied. The results of finite element parametric analysis indicate that the brace-to-chord thickness ratio has relatively large effects on the failure mechanism and ultimate capacity of overlapped joints. It was also found that the absence of hidden welds has less significance on the ultimate capacity of through-brace-in-compression joints than through-brace-in tension joints. Finally, based on the design equation of gap joints, a formula predicting the ultimate capacity of overlapped CHS K-joints was derived by applying multivariate regression analysis. Results from the proposed design equation are consistent with experimental results.
  • WANG Jingfeng, LI Guoqiang
    Stresses and deflections were measured in various semi-continuous composite beams. The bending and rotational capacities of the composite connections were measured in terms of beam curvatures and deflections by using two full-scale semi-rigid composite frames with monotonic loadings. The effect of semi-rigid connections on the performance of composite beams with various loadings was compared with predictions and codes. The tests show that the semi-continuous composite beams are more economic and effective than the simple or continuous composite beams. The semi-rigid connections affect the bending capacities and beam deflections, so the connection behavior should be considered in the design of composite beams. Yielding analysis of the steel beam bottom flange has some influence on the deflection calculation of composite beams.
  • PAN Hanming, GUO Yanlin, LIANG Shuo, PEI Shengxing, LIANG Weisheng, WANG Lewen
    Based on a blind spot in the current design standard of steel structures, the large diameter thin-walled tube beam-columns are analyzed using nonlinear finite element method in this paper. The influence of several factors on stability capacity of the large diameter thin-walled tube beam-columns is taken into account. Thus, according to the correlative design standard of steel structures, and on the basis of the numerical analytical results by the finite element methods, the calculation formulas of the stability bearing capacity are presented for beam-column members of the large diameter thin-walled tubes. Three tests of thin-walled steel tube beam-columns were reported. Test results for deformations and ultimate strength are found to be in a good agreement with the corresponding values predicted by the calculation formulas, and the proposed methods can be used in design practice.
  • LI Qi, WU Dingjun, HUANG Xiaobin
    It has been reported several times that train derailment occurs when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse bridges at high speeds in China. This study aims to explain this phenomenon numerically based on the train-bridge coupling vibration theory and its associated computer program. The train-bridge vibration characteristic is analyzed by a computer program when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse 32-meter-span prestressed concrete simple beam bridges. The mechanism that dynamic responses of the bridges are prominent and that empty trains are inclined to derail are derived from the dynamic responses analysis. The analysis indicates that the significant differences of axle loads between heavy vehicles and empty vehicles produce periodic forced loadings of large amplitudes. These periodic loadings cause severe vibration of bridges. In turn, severe vibration of the bridges produces intensive counteraction to empty vehicles.
  • HUANG Minshui, ZHU Hongping, LI Lin, GUO Wenzeng
    The dynamic characteristics of bridge structures are the basis of structural dynamic response and seismic analysis, and are also an important target of health condition monitoring. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite-element model is first established for a highway bridge over a railroad on No.312 National Highway. Based on design drawings, the dynamic characteristics of the bridge are studied using finite element analysis and ambient vibration measurements. Thus, a set of data is selected based on sensitivity analysis and optimization theory; the finite element model of the bridge is updated. The numerical and experimental results show that the updated method is more simple and effective, the updated finite element model can reflect the dynamic characteristics of the bridge better, and it can be used to predict the dynamic response under complex external forces. It is also helpful for further damage identification and health condition monitoring.
  • LI Liang, CHI Shichun, LIN Gao, CHENG Yungming
    In order to overcome the problem of being trapped by the local minima encountered in applying the simple genetic algorithm (GA) to search the critical slip surface of the slope, an improved procedure based on the harmony search algorithm is proposed. In the searching computation, the new solutions are obtained from the whole information of the current generation. The proposed method may be applied to calculate the minimum factors of safety of two complicated soil slopes. Comparison of the results with existing examples given by other authors has shown that the proposed method is feasible for stability analysis of soil slopes.
  • SHAO Shengjun, LONG Jiyong, YU Qinggao
    Through the tri-axial shearing tests of unsaturated intact loess and based on the concept of comprehensive soil structural potential, this paper reveals the changing laws of soil structural property under the tri-axial stress conditions and establishes a mathematical expression equation of structural parameters, whereby reflecting the effects of unsaturated loess water content, stress and strain states, which is introduced into the shearing stress and shearing strain relation to obtain the structural stress-strain relation. The tests reveal that the loess dilatancy is of shearing contraction and shearing expansion, whereby indicating that there is a good linear relation between the stress ratio and shearing expansion strain ratio. The larger consolidation confining pressure is, the larger the stress of shearing contraction and expansion critical point is; and the larger water content is, the smaller the strain ratio of shearing contraction and expansion critical point is. Finally, the constitutive model is established to reflect the variation in loess structure, stress-strain softening and hardening, and shearing contraction and shearing expansion features. Through the comparative analysis, the stress-strain curves described by the constitutive relationship are found to be in good conformity with test results, whereby testing the rationality of the model in this paper.
  • XU Riqing, GUO Yin, LIU Zengyong
    In order to study the influence of organic matter on the mechanical properties of stabilized soil and the effect of XGL2005 on stabilizing organic soil, unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out. Test results indicated that the strength of stabilized soil decreased in the form of a logarithmic function as the organic matter content increased. In contrast, the strength increased in the form of a power function as the content of the stabilization agent increased. The strength of cement stabilized organic soil was reinforced greatly by adding the stabilizer XGL2005. Based on the law obtained from the test, a strength prediction model was established by regression analysis. The model included the influence of the curing time, the content of the cement, the organic matter content and the stabilization agent on the strength of stabilized soil.
  • SUN Haitao, WANG Yuanhan, MIAO Yu
    A normalized space constructed by tensor product is used in field function approach to give a special case of moving least squares (MLS) interpolation scheme. In the regular domain, the field function which meets homogenous boundary conditions is constructed by spanning base space to make the MLS interpolation scheme simpler and more efficient. Owing to expanded basis functions selection, some drawbacks in general MLS method, for example repeated inversion, low calculation efficiency, and complex criterions, can be avoided completely. Numerical examples illustrate that the proposed method is characterized by simple mathematical concept, convenient repeat calculations with high accuracy, good continuity, less computation and rapid convergence.
  • YUAN Xiaomei, WU Shuoxian
    With deep humanized connotation, the classical Chinese garden uses human intuitive sensation and personal poetic observation to express natural sound phenomena. It differs from the rational modern soundscape in western countries.
  • JIANG Jinyang, SUN Wei, ZHANG Yunsheng, CHEN Cuicui, WANG Jing
    The mix ratio of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) was optimized using the principles that workability must meet the pumping demand and anti-cracking performance should be optimal. The effect of SFRC on the initial cracking load, the ultimate load and the crack width of the reinforced concrete (RC) member were analyzed in this paper. It was found that the admixture had good preservation of moisture and adhesion and the fibers distributed homogeneously in one hour out of the machine. According to the pumping results, the SFRC could be pumped vertically up to 306 m. Based on the standard computation formula of cracks, the maximum crack width of an RC member with 0.8% steel fiber (by volume) is about 32% lower than that of standard RC member. Through an experimental research on full-scale model tests for the steel and concrete composite anchorage zone on a pylon, the SFRC not only remarkably increases the crack resistance and the ultimate load, but the initial load also improves 33% approximately. It is also indicated that plastic shrinkage cracking of SFRC in which volume fraction of steel fibers is 0.8% can be restrained obviously and the unrestrained drying shrinkage can be diminished by about 50% at early age. The results confirmed that the SFRC can lessen the shrinkage crack of concrete and enhance markedly the direct tensile strength. Therefore, the SFRC can solve the key question of crack resistance for the anchorage zone of a bridge tower.
  • ZOU Chaoying, ZHAO Juan, LIANG Feng
    Adopting the ASTM C666 quick freeze-thaw method, freeze-thaw tests with the number of freeze-thaw cycles being 0, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300, were carried out on eighteen concrete prism specimens, the frost-resistant level of which, reaches D300 grade. The internal micro-structures of these specimens were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to detect damages caused by the freeze-thaw action. Afterwards these frozen-thawed specimens were tested on monotonic axial load; stress-strain testing curves after the freeze-thaw action were obtained. The testing results show that with the increasing time of freeze-thaw cycles, both the internal micro-structures and the basic mechanical parameters, including the ultimate bearing capacity, the Poisson ratio and the modulus of elasticity, degenerate in various degrees. Finally, stress-strain theoretical curvilinear equations and correlated parameters relating to the loss of relative dynamic modulus of elasticity were proposed. These results provide great reference for further research on the behavior and the calculation model of concrete structures in a freeze-thaw environment.