Researchers have shown that “cluster” is a more useful unit of analysis than “nation” in innovation studies. Clusters are characterized by interconnected organizations, shared resources and frequent knowledge flows. Within national boundaries, multiple clusters with different relative advantages may coexist, and exhibit very different innovation patterns. Yet, in studies of innovation in emerging economies, there remains little attention on cluster-based advantages, and how these advantages generate distinct patterns of innovation. To bridge this gap, this study analyzes the diffusion patterns of nanotechnology in two Chinese clusters—Beijing and Shanghai. With different relative advantages, the diffusion of nanotechnology has been oriented by different levels of “imitation” and “innovation” forces in the two Chinese clusters. This study applies the Bass Model to quantify imitation and innovation forces, and compare the resultant diffusion patterns of nanotechnology in the two clusters with other technologies. Supplementary qualitative data is also provided to show how Chinese scientists perceive their relative advantages in different clusters. Among other things, the findings suggest that scientists of emerging economies favor the learning-by-doing principle while utilizing external networks.
In the transition from “made in China” to “invented in China,” what is the motivation of Chinese firms in applying for patents? Why do some firms bypass patents? How is patenting developing within Chinese firms? This paper attempts to answer these questions using data of Chinese firms in the Yangtze River Delta region. Results indicate that, for product innovation, obtaining the lead time for market entry is of top priority in innovation protection, followed by confidentiality and patent protection. As for process innovation, confidentiality ranks first, followed by patent protection and obtaining the lead time. There is a significant and positive relationship between prior experience of patent licensing and possibility of future patent licensing. Firms with painful patent litigation experience tend to avoid it in the future. It is also found that there are great differences in patent behaviors between Chinese enterprises and their foreign counterparts.
This paper examines organizational changes in Founder Group during 1999–2008, one of the leading computer manufacturers in China. It aims to reveal the basic logic behind the top management team’s behaviors for organizational change in firms facing difficulties. Results show that building a strong management team is a prerequisite for successful organizational changes. Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that top managers should make strategic adjustment, and seek solution to cash-flow-related problems to achieve successful organizational transition.
In examining corporate success, many scholars overlook an important contributing factor, namely entrepreneurship. However, Chinese wisdom believes that the “right time, right place, and right people” (Three R’s) are crucial for business success. This study utilizes theories of entrepreneurship from the Austrian School of Economics to reinterpret the three factors for business success. This new interpretation is then applied to explain the success of a famous dumpling house in Taiwan, Din Tai Fung. This study argues that although favorable timing is critical to business success, it requires an entrepreneur to grasp the opportunity when it comes. The seizure of a golden chance requires alertness and preparation. More importantly, this study argues that even during an adverse period, a crisis can be turned into a profit opportunity. Whereas a favorable location is also regarded as a key factor, this study goes beyond sheer spatial dimensions. Location also encompasses culture, social customs, norms and traditional folklores. This paper argues that an entrepreneur transplants culture and social customs from one location to another, thus, gaining pure entrepreneurial profit. Finally, the “right people” in an entrepreneurial sense involves a harmonious social network and good personal relationship (Guanxi). By maintaining a harmonious relationship with staff members, partners, customers, and suppliers, entrepreneurs can “get things done.” This case study provides a new insight into Chinese entrepreneurship in East Asia.
Made-in-China products have a country-of-origin image of “low cost, cheap price, but only passable quality.” What are the characteristics of Made-in- China management research? Passable (but not outstanding) quality seems to be a reasonable and accurate characterization of such research. How can the quality of Made-in-China management research be improved? I point out five common but fixable problems typically associated with such research, and offer actionable solutions to solve them. Finally, I argue that management scholars have a social responsibility to help improve China’s country-of-origin image, by pursuing scholarly excellence and not tolerating sloppiness in management research.
This case illustrates key innovations that took place in Hisense Group, one of the leading companies in the electronic appliances industry in China, from 1990s to 2010. Several factors contributed to its leading position, including strategic positioning, consistent technological innovation over decades, and an efficient administrative system. Since 1992, Hisense has paid close attention to technological innovation. It makes it clear that R&D plays a dominant role in competition. Hisense has continuously invested heavily in R&D and restructured its R&D administrative system, including the organizational framework, incentive mechanisms, project management and teamwork. Hisense’s strategy has resulted in major technological innovations. Hiview chip is a technological breakthrough, which helps the company gain competitive advantages.
This article examines the entry to the Chinese market of Kingfisher plc under its B&Q brand, operating in the DIY or home improvement market. It is a pedagogically oriented case in the international strategy area, which deals with both the mode of market development by the company in China and some of the softer issues arising from that process relating to HR in the company and the inevitable cultural challenges it faced. The story begins in the mid-1990s and goes through to the early summer of 2010. On the one hand, the entry has been successful: B&Q is now a significant presence in China, holding number one position in their chosen market, which is primarily highly fragmented; there is some concentration in four key cities in the wealthy east coast region; and it has made profits over a fair portion over the last decade. Lessons were learned from the initial mistakes and the core sales proposition in China has been crafted to differ from that in the original UK home base. However, for the last three completed financial years, losses have been booked and significant changes have been made or were planned at the time of writing. Some changes were inevitable, but which were they (other than those where the Chinese government changed its rules)? Keywords