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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

ISSN 2095-2430 (Print)
ISSN 2095-2449 (Online)
CN 10-1023/X
Postal Subscription Code 80-968
2018 Impact Factor: 1.272

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, Volume 13 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
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REVIEW
Technological development and engineering applications of novel steel-concrete composite structures
Jianguo NIE, Jiaji WANG, Shuangke GOU, Yaoyu ZHU, Jiansheng FAN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 1-14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0514-x
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In view of China’s development trend of green building and building industrialization, based on the emerging requirements of the structural engineering community, the development and proposition of novel resource-saving high-performance steel-concrete composite structural systems with adequate safety and durability has become a kernel development trend in structural engineering. This paper provides a state of the art review of China’s cutting-edge research and technologies in steel-concrete composite structures in recent years, including the building engineering, the bridge engineering and the special engineering. This paper summarizes the technical principles and applications of the long-span bi-directional composite structures, the long-span composite transfer structures, the comprehensive crack control technique based on uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (URSP) connectors, the steel plate concrete composite (SPCC) strengthen technique, and the innovative composite joints. By improving and revising traditional structure types, the comprehensive superiority of steel-concrete composite structures is well elicited. The research results also indicate that the high-performance steel-concrete composite structures have a promising popularizing prospect in the future.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Dynamic failure analysis of concrete dams under air blast using coupled Euler-Lagrange finite element method
Farhoud KALATEH
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 15-37.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0465-7
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In this study, the air blast response of the concrete dams including dam-reservoir interaction and acoustic cavitation in the reservoir is investigated. The finite element (FE) developed code are used to build three-dimensional (3D) finite element models of concrete dams. A fully coupled Euler-Lagrange formulation has been adopted herein. A previous developed model including the strain rate effects is employed to model the concrete material behavior subjected to blast loading. In addition, a one-fluid cavitating model is employed for the simulation of acoustic cavitation in the fluid domain. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the air blast loading on the response of concrete dam systems. Hence, the analyses are performed for different heights of dam and different values of the charge distance from the charge center. Numerical results revealed that 1) concrete arch dams are more vulnerable to air blast loading than concrete gravity dams; 2) reservoir has mitigation effect on the response of concrete dams; 3) acoustic cavitation intensify crest displacement of concrete dams.

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REVIEW
Empirical models and design codes in prediction of modulus of elasticity of concrete
Behnam VAKHSHOURI, Shami NEJADI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 38-48.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0479-1
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Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is a key parameter in reinforced concrete design. It represents the stress-strain relationship in the elastic range and is used in the prediction of concrete structures. Out of range estimation of MOE in the existing codes of practice strongly affect the design and performance of the concrete structures. This study includes: (a) evaluation and comparison of the existing analytical models to estimating the MOE in normal strength concrete, and (b) proposing and verifying a new model. In addition, a wide range of experimental databases and empirical models to estimate the MOE from compressive strength and density of concrete are evaluated to verification of the proposed model. The results show underestimation of MOE of conventional concrete in majority of the existing models. Also, considering the consistency between density and mechanical properties of concrete, the predicted MOE in the models including density effect, are more compatible with the experimental results.

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Hot-dip galvanizing of cold-formed steel hollow sections: a state-of-the-art review
Min SUN, Jeffrey A. PACKER
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 49-65.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0448-0
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A good understanding of the effects of galvanizing on the short- and long-term behaviours of steel components is essential for structural design. This review paper is motivated by a series of recent reports on cracking in galvanized cold-formed tubular steel structures and the limitations of current steel product standards and steel design specifications in this field. The steel-related and galvanizing-related factors, different pre-galvanizing countermeasures for brittle cracking and the available technical documents are summarized. An extensive bibliography is provided as a basis for future research and development in this field.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Application of random set method in a deep excavation: based on a case study in Tehran cemented alluvium
Arash SEKHAVATIAN, Asskar Janalizadeh CHOOBBASTI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 66-80.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0461-y
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The design of high-rise buildings often necessitates ground excavation, where buildings are in close proximity to the construction, thus there is a potential for damage to these structures. This paper studies an efficient user-friendly framework for dealing with uncertainties in a deep excavation in layers of cemented coarse grained soil located in Tehran, Iran by non-deterministic Random Set (RS) method. In order to enhance the acceptability of the method among engineers, a pertinent code was written in FISH language of FLAC2D software which enables the designers to run all simulations simultaneously, without cumbersome procedure of changing input variables in every individual analysis. This could drastically decrease the computational effort and cost imposed to the project, which is of great importance especially to the owners. The results are presented in terms of probability of occurrence and most likely values of the horizontal displacement at top of the wall at every stage of construction. Moreover, a methodology for assessing the credibility of the uncertainty model is presented using a quality indicator. It was concluded that performing RS analysis before the beginning of every stage could cause great economical savings, while improving the safety of the project.

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Deflection behavior of a prestressed concrete beam reinforced with carbon fibers at elevated temperatures
Mohammed FARUQI, Mohammed Sheroz KHAN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 81-91.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0468-4
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Fiber reinforced polymer(FRP) have unique advantages like high strength to weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, improving deformability and cost effectiveness. These advantages have gained wide acceptance in civil engineering applications. FRP tendons for prestressing applications are emerging as one of the most promising technologies in the civil engineering industry. However, the behavior of such members under the influence of elevated temperatures is still unknown. The knowledge and application of this could lead to a cost effective and practical considerations in fire safety design. Therefore, this study examines the deflection behavior of the carbon fiber reinforced polymer(CFRP) prestressed concrete beam at elevated temperatures. In this article, an analytical model is developed which integrates the temperature dependent changes of effective modulus of FRP in predicting the deflection behavior of CFRP prestressed concrete beams within the range of practical temperatures. This model is compared with a finite element mode (FEM) of a simply supported concrete beam prestressed with CFRP subjected to practical elevated temperatures. In addition, comparison is also made with an indirect reference to the real behavior of the material. The results of the model correlated reasonably with the finite element model and the real behavior. Finally, a practical application is provided.

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Numerical investigation of circle defining curve for two-dimensional problem with general boundaries using the scaled boundary finite element method
Chung Nguyen VAN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 92-102.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0472-8
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The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is applied to the static analysis of two dimensional elasticity problem, boundary value problems domain with the domain completely described by a circular defining curve. The scaled boundary finite element equations is formulated within a general framework integrating the influence of the distributed body force, general boundary conditions, and bounded and unbounded domain. This paper investigates the possibility of using exact geometry to form the exact description of the circular defining curve and the standard finite element shape function to approximate the defining curve. Three linear elasticity problems are presented to verify the proposed method with the analytical solution. Numerical examples show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, and the performance is found to be better than using standard linear element for the approximation defining curve on the scaled boundary method.

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Multivariable regression model for Fox depth correction factor
Ravi Kant MITTAL, Sanket RAWAT, Piyush BANSAL
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 103-109.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0474-6
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This paper presents a simple and efficient equation for calculating the Fox depth correction factor used in computation of settlement reduction due to foundation embedment. Classical solution of Boussinesq theory was used originally to develop the Fox depth correction factor equations which were rather complex in nature. The equations were later simplified in the form of graphs and tables and referred in various international code of practices and standard texts for an unsophisticated and quick analysis. However, these tables and graphs provide the factor only for limited values of the input variables and hence again complicates the process of automation of analysis. Therefore, this paper presents a non-linear regression model for the analysis of effect of embedment developed using “IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences” software. Through multiple iterations, the value of coefficient of determination is found to reach 0.987. The equation is straightforward, competent and easy to use for both manual and automated calculation of the Fox depth correction factor for wide range of input values. Using the developed equation, parametric study is also conducted in the later part of the paper to analyse the extent of effect of a particular variable on the Fox depth factor.

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Effect of anisotropic characteristics on the mechanical behavior of asphalt concrete overlay
Lingyun YOU, Zhanping YOU, Kezhen YAN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 110-122.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0476-4
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Asphalt concrete (AC) overlays placed over old asphalt pavement have become an alternative to repairing and reinforcing pavements. The strength contributed by the AC overlay is strongly influenced by the anisotropic properties of the pavement material. This study was conducted to analyze the influence of anisotropy, modulus gradient properties, and the condition of the AC overlay and old pavement contact plane on the mechanical behaviors of AC overlays, as well as to quantify the influence of the degree of anisotropy on the mechanical behaviors of AC overlay by a sensitivity analysis (SA). The mechanical behaviors of the AC overlay were numerically obtained using the three-dimensional finite element method with the aid of ABAQUS, a commercial program. Variations in the AC overlay’s modulus as a function of temperature as well as the contact state between the AC overlay and AC layer were considered. The SA is based on standardized regression coefficients method. Comparing the mechanical behavior in terms of surface deflection, stress, and strain of the anisotropy model against those corresponding to the isotropic model under static loads show that the anisotropic properties had greater effects on the mechanical behavior of the AC overlay. In addition, the maximum shear stress in the AC overlay was the most significant output parameter affected by the degree of anisotropy. Therefore, future research concerning the reinforcement and repair of pavements should consider the anisotropic properties of the pavement materials.

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Border-search and jump reduction method for size optimization of spatial truss structures
Babak DIZANGIAN, Mohammad Reza GHASEMI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 123-134.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0478-2
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This paper proposes a sensitivity-based border-search and jump reduction method for optimum design of spatial trusses. It is considered as a two-phase optimization approach, where at the first phase, the first local optimum is found by few analyses, after the whole searching space is limited employing an efficient random strategy, and the second phase involves finding a sequence of local optimum points using the variables sensitivity with respect to corresponding values of constraints violation. To reach the global solution at phase two, a sequence of two sensitivity-based operators of border-search operator and jump operator are introduced until convergence is occurred. Sensitivity analysis is performed using numerical finite difference method. To do structural analysis, a link between open source software of OpenSees and MATLAB was developed. Spatial truss problems were attempted for optimization in order to show the fastness and efficiency of proposed technique. Results were compared with those reported in the literature. It shows that the proposed method is competitive with the other optimization methods with a significant reduction in number of analyses carried.

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Dynamic in-plane transversal normal stresses in the concrete face of CFRD
Neftalí SARMIENTO-SOLANO, Miguel P. ROMO
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 135-148.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0481-7
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Severe earthquakes can induce damages to Concrete Face Rockfill Dams (CFRDs) such as concrete cracking and joint’s water stops distressing where high in-plane transversal normal stresses develop. Although these damages rarely jeopardize the dam safety, they cause large water reservoir leakages that hinder the dam functioning. This issue can be addressed using well know numerical methods; however, given the wide range of parameters involved, it would seem appropriate to develop a simple yet reliable procedure to get a close understanding how their interaction affects the CFRD’s overall behavior. Accordingly, once the physics of the problem is better understood one can proceed to perform a detailed design of the various components of the dam. To this end an easy-to-use procedure that accounts for the dam height effects, valley narrowness, valley slopes, width of concrete slabs and seismic excitation characteristics was developed. The procedure is the dynamic complement of a method recently developed to evaluate in-plane transversal normal stresses in the concrete face of CFRD’s due to dam reservoir filling [1]. Using these two procedures in a sequential manner, it is possible to define the concrete slab in-plane normal stresses induced by the reservoir filling and the action of orthogonal horizontal seismic excitations acting at the same time upstream-downstream and cross river. Both procedures were developed from a data base generated using nonlinear static and dynamic three-dimensional numerical analyses on the same group of CFRD’s. Then, the results were interpreted with the Buckingham Pi theorem and various relationships were developed. In the above reference, the method to evaluate the concrete face in-plane transversal normal stresses caused by the first reservoir filling was reported. In this paper, the seismic procedure is first developed and then through an example the whole method (dam construction, reservoir filling plus seismic loading) of analysis is assessed.

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Computational studies on the seismic response of the State Route 99 bridge in Seattle with SMA/ECC plastic hinges
Jiping GE, M. Saiid SAIIDI, Sebastian VARELA
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 149-164.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0482-6
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This paper reports a computational study on the seismic response of a three-span highway bridge system incorporating conventional and novel substructure details for improved seismic performance. The bridge has three continuous spans supported by two single-column piers and integral abutments founded on drilled shafts. It will be the first full-scale highway bridge to use superelastic shape memory alloy bars (SMA) and engineered cementitious composite (ECC) to mitigate column plastic hinge damage and minimize residual displacements after a strong earthquake. A three-dimensional computational model capturing the nonlinear constitutive response of the novel materials and the effects of dynamic soil-structure interaction was developed to assess the seismic response of the bridge in finite-element software OpenSees. Two versions of the same bridge were analyzed and compared, one with conventional cast-in-place reinforced concrete columns, and the other with top plastic hinges incorporating Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) SMA reinforcing bars and ECC. The novel SMA/ECC plastic hinges were found to substantially reduce damage and post-earthquake residual displacements in the bridge substructure, but led to larger maximum drifts relative to the bridge with conventional reinforced concrete plastic hinges. The analysis results suggested that the novel plastic hinges could lead to improved post-earthquake serviceability of bridges after intense earthquakes.

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3D fracture modelling and limit state analysis of prestressed composite concrete pipes
Pengfei HE, Yang SHEN, Yun GU, Pangyong SHEN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 165-175.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0484-4
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In this manuscript, we study fracture of prestressed cylindrical concrete pipes. Such concrete pipes play a major role in tunneling and underground engineering. The structure is modelled fully in 3D using three-dimensional continuum elements for the concrete structure which beam elements are employed to model the reinforcement. This allows the method to capture important phenomena compared to a pure shell model of concrete. A continuous approach to fracture is chosen when concrete is subjected to compressive loading while a combined continuous-discrete fracture method is employed in tension. The model is validated through comparisons with experimental data.

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A fast and accurate dynamic relaxation scheme
Mohammad REZAIEE-PAJAND, Mohammad MOHAMMADI-KHATAMI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 176-189.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0486-2
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Dynamic relaxation method (DRM) is one of the suitable numerical procedures for nonlinear structural analysis. Adding the fictitious inertia and damping forces to the static equation, and turning it to the dynamic system, are the basis of this technique. Proper selection of the DRM artificial factors leads to the better convergence rate and efficient solutions. This study aims to increase the numerical stability, and to decrease the analysis time. To fulfil this objective, the reduction rate of analysis error for consecutive iterations is minimized. Based on this formulation, a new time step is found for the viscous dynamic relaxation. After combining this novel relationship with the other DRM factors, various geometrical nonlinear structures, such as trusses, frames, and shells, are analyzed. The obtained results verify the efficiency of authors’ scheme.

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Experimental investigations of internal energy dissipation during fracture of fiber-reinforced ultra-high-performance concrete
Eric N. LANDIS, Roman KRAVCHUK, Dmitry LOSHKOV
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 190-200.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0487-1
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Split-cylinder fracture of fiber-reinforced ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) was examined using two complementary techniques: X-ray computed tomography (CT) and acoustic emission (AE). Fifty-mm-diameter specimens of two different fiber types were scanned both before and after load testing. From the CT images, fiber orientation was evaluated to establish optimum and pessimum specimen orientations, at which fibers would have maximum and minimum effect, respectively. As expected, fiber orientation affected both the peak load and the toughness of the specimen, with the optimum toughness being between 20% and 30% higher than the pessimum. Cumulative AE energy was also affected commensurately. Posttest CT scans of the specimens were used to measure internal damage. Damage was quantified in terms of internal energy dissipation due to both matrix cracking and fiber pullout by using calibration measurements for each. The results showed that fiber pullout was the dominant energy dissipation mechanism; however, the sum of the internal energy dissipation measured amounted to only 60% of the total energy dissipated by the specimens as measured by the net work of load. It is postulated that localized compaction of the UHPC matrix as well as internal friction between fractured fragments makes up the balance of internal energy dissipation.

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Scaled boundary finite element method with exact defining curves for two-dimensional linear multi-field media
Jaroon RUNGAMORNRAT, Chung Nguyen VAN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 201-214.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0488-0
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This paper presents an efficient and accurate numerical technique based upon the scaled boundary finite element method for the analysis of two-dimensional, linear, second-order, boundary value problems with a domain completely described by a circular defining curve. The scaled boundary finite element formulation is established in a general framework allowing single-field and multi-field problems, bounded and unbounded bodies, distributed body source, and general boundary conditions to be treated in a unified fashion. The conventional polar coordinates together with a properly selected scaling center are utilized to achieve the exact description of the circular defining curve, exact geometry of the domain, and exact spatial differential operators. Standard finite element shape functions are employed in the discretization of both trial and test functions in the circumferential direction and the resulting eigenproblem is solved by a selected efficient algorithm. The computational performance of the implemented procedure is then fully investigated for various scenarios to demonstrate the accuracy in comparison with standard linear elements.

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Modeling of bentonite/sepiolite plastic concrete compressive strength using artificial neural network and support vector machine
Ali Reza GHANIZADEH, Hakime ABBASLOU, Amir Tavana AMLASHI, Pourya ALIDOUST
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 215-239.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0489-z
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Plastic concrete is an engineering material, which is commonly used for construction of cut-off walls to prevent water seepage under the dam. This paper aims to explore two machine learning algorithms including artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) to predict the compressive strength of bentonite/sepiolite plastic concretes. For this purpose, two unique sets of 72 data for compressive strength of bentonite and sepiolite plastic concrete samples (totally 144 data) were prepared by conducting an experimental study. The results confirm the ability of ANN and SVM models in prediction processes. Also, Sensitivity analysis of the best obtained model indicated that cement and silty clay have the maximum and minimum influences on the compressive strength, respectively. In addition, investigation of the effect of measurement error of input variables showed that change in the sand content (amount) and curing time will have the maximum and minimum effects on the output mean absolute percent error (MAPE) of model, respectively. Finally, the influence of different variables on the plastic concrete compressive strength values was evaluated by conducting parametric studies.

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Hydromechanical model for hydraulic fractures using XFEM
Bo HE
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2019, 13 (1): 240-249.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0490-6
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In this study, a hydromechanical model for fluid flow in fractured porous media is presented. We assume viscous fluids and the coupling equations are derived from the mass and momentum balance equations for saturated porous media. The fluid flow through discrete cracks will be modelled by the extended finite element method and an implicit time integration scheme. We also present a consistent linearization of the underlying non-linear discrete equations. They are solved by the Newton-Raphson iteration procedure in combination with a line search. Furthermore, the model is extended to includes crack propagation. Finally, examples are presented to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this two-scale hydromechanical model. The results suggest that the presence of the fracture in a deforming, porous media has great impact on the fluid flow and deformation patterns.

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