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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

ISSN 2095-2430 (Print)
ISSN 2095-2449 (Online)
CN 10-1023/X
Postal Subscription Code 80-968
2018 Impact Factor: 1.272

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, Volume 12 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Non linear modeling of three-dimensional reinforced and fiber concrete structures
Fatiha IGUETOULENE, Youcef BOUAFIA, Mohand Said KACHI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 439-453.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0433-7
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Under the effect of the ascending loading, the behavior of reinforced concrete structures is rather non linear. Research in industry and science aims to extend forward the use of non-linear calculation of fiber concrete for structural parts such as columns, veils and pious, as the fiber concrete is more ductile behavior then the classical concrete behavior. The formulation of the element has been established for modeling the nonlinear behavior of elastic structures in three dimensions, based on the displacement method. For the behavior of concrete and fiber concrete compressive and tensile strength (stress-strain) the uniaxial formulation is used. For steel bi-linear relationship is used. The approach is based on the discretization of the cross section trapezoidal tables. Forming the stiffness matrix of the section, the integral of the surface is calculated as the sum of the integrals on each of the cutting trapezoids. To integrate on the trapeze we have adopted the type of Simpson integration scheme.

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Research Article
Effect of embedment length of untreated natural fibres on the bond behaviour in cement mortar
Gudimella RAMAKRISHNA, Sriraman PRIYADHARSHINI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 454-460.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0454-2
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The present investigation is focused on studying the effects of various matrices with 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 mortars and fibre types of sisal and coir on the bond behavior at various ages of curing, i.e., 24 h, 3 d, 7 d and 28 d. The other parameters included in the investigation are water/cement (w/c) ratio, sand gradation and embedment length of fibres. In addition, the type of failure of sisal and coir fibres for different mixes of mortars at various curing ages is also reported. From the results, it is seen that the bond strength is improving with respect to age of curing in case of sisal fibres, but decreases in case of coir fibres. The failure of fibres due to fibre fracture is observed in sisal fibres and fibre pullout is observed in coir fibres. The other varying parameters such as mortar mixes, sand gradation, w/c ratio and embedded length also showed significant effect on bond behaviour of sisal and coir fibre with the cement mortar mixes.

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Three-scale stochastic homogenization of elastic recycled aggregate concrete based on nano-indentation digital images
Chen WANG, Yuching WU, Jianzhuang XIAO
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 461-473.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0441-7
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In this paper, three-scale stochastic elastic finite element analyses are made for recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) based on nano-indentation digital images. The elastic property of RAC contains uncertainties across scales. It has both theoretical and practical values to model and predict its mechanical performance. Based on homogenization theory, effective stochastic elastic moduli of RAC at three different scales are obtained using moving window technique, nano-indentation digital images, and Monte-Carlo method. It involves the generation of a large number of random realizations of microstructure geometry based on different volume fraction of the inclusions and other parameters. The mean value, coefficient of variation and probability distribution of the effective elastic moduli are computed considering the material multiscale structure. The microscopic randomness is taken into account, and correlations of RAC among five phases are investigated. The effective elastic properties are used to obtain the global behavior of a composite structure. It is indicated that the response variability can be considerably affected by replacement percentage of recycled aggregates.

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The effect of micro-structural uncertainties of recycled aggregate concrete on its global stochastic properties via finite pixel-element Monte Carlo simulation
Qingpeng MENG, Yuching WU, Jianzhuang XIAO
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 474-489.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0442-6
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In this paper, the effect of micro-structural uncertainties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) on its global stochastic elastic properties is investigated via finite pixel-element Monte Carlo simulation. Representative RAC models are randomly generated with various distribution of aggregates. Based on homogenization theory, effects of recycled aggregate replacement rate, aggregate volume fraction, the unevenness of old mortar, proportion of old mortar, aggregate size and elastic modulus of aggregates on overall variability of equivalent elastic properties are investigated. Results are in a good agreement with experimental data in literature and finite pixel-element method saves the computation cost. It is indicated that the effect of mesoscopic randomness on global variability of elastic properties is considerable.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Predicting the strength properties of slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete using artificial neural network
T. Chandra Sekhara REDDY
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 490-503.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0445-3
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This paper is aimed at adapting Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict the strength properties of SIFCON containing different minerals admixture. The investigations were done on 84 SIFCON mixes, and specimens were cast and tested after 28 days curing. The obtained experimental data are trained using ANN which consists of 4 input parameters like Percentage of fiber (PF), Aspect Ratio (AR), Type of admixture (TA) and Percentage of admixture (PA). The corresponding output parameters are compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength. The predicted values obtained using ANN show a good correlation between the experimental data. The performance of the 4-14-3 architecture was better than other architectures. It is concluded that ANN is a highly powerful tool suitable for assessing the strength characteristics of SIFCON.

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REVIEW
Jack up reliability analysis: An overview
Ahmad IDRIS, Indra Sati Hamonangan HARAHAP, Montasir Osman Ahmed ALI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 504-514.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0443-5
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Jack up is a mobile unit used for oil and gas exploration and production in offshore fields. On demand, the unit is moved and installed in a given location and used for a period up to 12 months before being un-installed and moved to another location. Due to its mobility and re-usability, when the unit is offered for use in a given offshore location, its suitability in terms of safe operation is evaluated in accordance with the guidelines of Site Specific Assessment (SSA) of jack up. When the unit failed safety assessment criteria, the guideline recommended that it is re-assessed by increasing the complexity of the assumptions and methods used. Reliability analysis theories are one of the frameworks recommended for the safety assessment of the units. With recent developments in uncertainty and reliability analysis of structures subject to stochastic excitation, this study aims at providing a review on the past developments in jack up reliability analysis and to identify possible future directions. The results from literature reviewed shows that failure probabilities vary significantly with analysis method used. In addition, from the variants of reliability analysis approach, the method of time dependent reliability for dynamic structures subject to stochastic excitation have not been implemented on jack ups. Consequently, suggestions were made on the areas that need further examination for improvement of the efficiency in safety assessment of the units using reliability theories.

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Research Article
Independent cover meshless particle method for complex geotechnical engineering
Jianqiu WU, Yongchang CAI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 515-526.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0428-4
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A new Independent Cover Meshless Particle (ICMP) method is proposed for the analysis of complex geotechnical engineering. In the ICMP method, the independent rectangular cover regardless of the shape of the analysis model is employed as the influence domain of each discrete node, the general polynomial is employed as the meshless interpolation function of the independent nodal cover, and the Cartesian Transformation Method (CTM) is used for the numerical integration of the nodal covers cut by material interfaces, joints, cracks and faults. The present method has a simple formulation and a low computational cost, and is easy for the numerical analysis and modeling of complex geotechnical engineering. Several typical numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Dynamic crack propagation in plates weakened by inclined cracks: an investigation based on peridynamics
A. SHAFIEI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 527-535.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0450-1
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Peridynamics is a theory in solid mechanics that uses integral equations instead of partial differential equations as governing equations. It can be applied to fracture problems in contrast to the approach of fracture mechanics. In this paper by using peridynamics, the crack path for inclined crack under dynamic loading were investigated. The peridynamics solution for this problem represents the main features of dynamic crack propagation such as crack bifurcation. The problem is solved for various angles and different stress values. In addition, the influence of geometry on inclined crack growth is studied. The results are compared with molecular dynamic solutions that seem to show reasonable agreement in branching position and time.

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Temperature segregation and its impact on the quality and performance of asphalt pavements
Minkyum KIM, Pranjal PHALTANE, Louay N. MOHAMMAD, Mostafa ELSEIFI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 536-547.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0451-5
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Temperature segregation is non-uniform temperature distribution across the uncompacted asphalt mat during paving operations and may have detrimental effects on the quality and performance of asphalt pavements. However, many research studies conducted across the US have reported mixed observations regarding its effects on the initial quality and long-term performance of asphalt pavements. ?The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the temperature segregation on the density and mechanical properties of Louisiana asphalt mixtures. Seven asphalt rehabilitation projects across Louisiana were selected. A multi-sensor infrared bar (Pave-IR) system and a hand-held portable thermal camera were used to measure the temperature of asphalt mats. Field core samples were collected from various areas with varying severity levels of temperature segregation and tested for the density, fracture resistance (Jc) by semi-circular bending (SCB), rut depth by wheel tracking, and dynamic modulus (|E*|) by indirect tension (IDT) devices. ?Two distinctive patterns of non-uniform temperature distribution were observed: a cyclic and irregular temperature segregations. Laboratory test results showed that highly temperature segregated asphalt pavements (i.e., temperature differentials ≥ 41.7°C) can have significantly lower densities and the mechanical properties than the non-segregated area, especially when the temperature differentials are measured at compaction.

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Peridynamics versus XFEM: a comparative study for quasi-static crack problems
Jinhai ZHAO, Hesheng TANG, Songtao XUE
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 548-557.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0434-6
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Peridynamics (PD) is a nonlocal continuum theory based on integro-differential equations without spatial derivatives. The fracture criterion is implicitly incorporated in the PD theory and fracture is a natural outcome of the simulation. However, capturing of complex mixed-mode crack patterns has been proven to be difficult with PD. On the other hand, the extended finite element method (XFEM) is one of the most popular methods for fracture which allows crack propagation with minimal remeshing. It requires a fracture criterion which is independent of the underlying discretization though a certain refinement is needed in order to obtain suitable results. This article presents a comparative study between XFEM and PD. Therefore, two examples are studied. The first example is crack propagation in a double notched specimen under uniaxial tension with different crack spacings in loading direction. The second example is the specimens with two center cracks. The results show that PD as well as XFEM are well suited to capture this type of behaviour.

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Research Article
Analysis on running safety of train on the bridge considering sudden change of wind load caused by wind barriers
Tian ZHANG, He XIA, Weiwei GUO
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 558-567.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0455-1
Abstract   HTML   PDF (1322KB)

The calculation formulae for change of wind load acting on the car-body are derived when a train moves into or out of the wind barrier structure, the dynamic analysis model of wind-vehicle-bridge system with wind barrier is established, and the influence of sudden change of wind load on the running safety of the train is analyzed. For a 10-span simply-supported U-shaped girder bridge with 100 m long double-side 3.5 m barrier, the response and the running safety indices of the train are calculated. The results are compared with those of the case with wind barrier on the whole bridge. It is shown that the sudden change of wind load caused by wind barrier has significant influence on the lateral acceleration of the car-body, but no distinct on the vertical acceleration. The running safety indices of train vehicle with sectional wind barriers are worse than those with full wind barriers, and the difference increases rapidly with wind velocity.

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Numerical simulation of compaction parameters for sand-filled embankment using large thickness sand filling technique in Jianghan Plain district
Wentao WANG, Chongzhi TU, Rong LUO
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 568-576.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0444-4
Abstract   HTML   PDF (804KB)

The study uses the finite element method to simulate a new technique of highway sand embankment filling in Jianghan Plain district, which can raise the thickness of sand-filled layer from 30 cm to 70 cm and can significantly shorten the construction period based on the guarantee of sand embankment construction quality. After simulating the three compacting proposals carried out on the field test, the study uses COMSOL software to research on the compacting effects of sand-filled layers in larger thicknesses by 22 ton vibratory roller alone, and then to investigate the steady compacting effect of 12 ton vibratory roller. The simulation results indicate that the sand-filled layer thickness of 70 cm is suitable for the new sand filling technique, and the sand-filled embankment project with tight construction period is suggested to choose the 12 ton vibration roller for steady compaction.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Nonlinear analysis and reliability of metallic truss structures
Karim BENYAHI, Youcef BOUAFIA, Salma BARBOURA, Mohand Said KACHI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 577-593.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0458-y
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The present study goes into the search for the safety domain of civil engineering structures. The objective is to show how a reliability-evaluation brought by a mechanical sizing can be obtained. For that purpose, it is necessary to have a mechanical model and a reliability model representing correctly the behavior of this type of structure. ?It is a question on one hand, to propose a formulation for the nonlinear calculation (mechanical nonlinearity) of the spatial structures in trusses, and on the other hand, to propose or to adapt a formulation and a modeling of the reliability. The principle of Hasofer-Lind can be applied, in first approach, for the reliability index estimation, scenarios and the probability of failure. ?The made check concerned metallic in truss structures. Finally, some structures are calculated using the method adapted by Hasofer-Lind to validate the probability approach of the reliability analysis.

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ANN-based empirical modelling of pile behaviour under static compressive loading
Abdussamad ISMAIL
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 594-608.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0446-2
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Artificial neural networks have been widely used over the past two decades to successfully develop empirical models for a variety of geotechnical problems. In this paper, an empirical model based on the product-unit neural network (PUNN) is developed to predict the load-deformation behaviour of piles based SPT values of the supporting soil. Other parameters used as inputs include particle grading, pile geometry, method of installation as well as the elastic modulus of the pile material. The model is trained using full-scale pile loading tests data retrieved from FHWA deep foundations database. From the results obtained, it is observed that the proposed model gives a better simulation of pile load-deformation curves compared to the Fleming’s hyperbolic model and t-z approach.

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Thermal fluid-structure interaction and coupled thermal-stress analysis in a cable stayed bridge exposed to fire
Nazim Abdul NARIMAN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 609-628.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0452-z
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In this paper, thermal fluid structure-interaction (TFSI) and coupled thermal-stress analysis are utilized to identify the effects of transient and steady-state heat-transfer on the vortex induced vibration and fatigue of a segmental bridge deck due to fire incidents. Numerical simulations of TFSI models of the deck are dedicated to calculate the lift and drag forces in addition to determining the lock-in regions once using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models and another using TFSI models. Vorticity and thermal convection fields of three fire scenarios are simulated and analyzed. Simiu and Scanlan benchmark is used to validate the TFSI models, where a good agreement was manifested between the two results. Extended finite element method (XFEM) is adopted to create 3D models of the cable stayed bridge to simulate the fatigue of the deck considering three fire scenarios. Choi and Shin benchmark is used to validate the damaged models of the deck in which a good coincide was seen between them. The results revealed that TFSI models and coupled thermal-stress models are significant in detecting earlier vortex induced vibration and lock-in regions in addition to predicting damages and fatigue of the deck due to fire incidents.

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A new fracture criterion for peridynamic and dual-horizon peridynamics
Jinhai ZHAO, Hesheng TANG, Songtao XUE
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 629-641.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0447-1
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A new fracture criterion based on the crack opening displacement for peridynamic (PD) and dual-horizon peridynamics (DH-PD) is proposed. When the relative deformation of the PD bond between the particles reaches the critical crack tip opening displacement of the fracture mechanics, we assume that the bond force vanishes. A new damage rule similar to the local damage rule in conventional PD is introduced to simulate fracture. The new formulation is developed for a linear elastic solid though the extension to nonlinear materials is straightforward. The performance of the new fracture criterion is demonstrated by four examples, i.e. a bilateral crack problem, double parallel crack, monoclinic crack and the double inclined crack. The results are compared to experimental data and the results obtained by other computational methods.

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Experimental and numerical analysis of beam to column joints in steel structures
Gholamreza ABDOLLAHZADEH, Seyed Mostafa SHABANIAN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 642-661.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0457-z
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The behaviors such as extreme non-elastic response, constant changes in roughness and resistance, as well as formability under extreme loads such as earthquakes are the primary challenges in the modeling of beam-to-column connections. In this research, two modeling methods including mechanical and neural network methods have been presented in order to model the complex hysteresis behavior of beam-to-column connections with flange plate. First, the component-based mechanical model will be introduced in which every source of transformation has been shown only with geometrical and material properties. This is followed by the investigation of a neural network method for direct extraction of information out of experimental data. For the validation of behavioral curves as well as training of the neural network, the experiments were carried out on samples with real dimensions of beam-to-column connections with flange plate in the laboratory. At the end, the combinational modeling framework is presented. The comparisons reveal that the combinational modeling is able to display the complex narrowed hysteresis behavior of the beam-to-column connections with flange plate. This model has also been successfully employed for the prediction of the behavior of a newly designed connection.

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The defect-length effect in corrosion detection with magnetic method for bridge cables
Qiwei ZHANG, Rongya XIN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (4): 662-671.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0512-4
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Quantitative evaluation of the steel corrosion in cables is significant for the safe operation of cable-supported bridges. The magnetic flux (MF) examination shows great potential to detect the corrosion defect, or loss of metallic cross-sectional area (LMA). An LMA defect in steel cables can be measured accurately when it is longer than a certain length. However, for defects in early stage, where the length of corrosion area is short, the MF examination may produce unacceptable error. In this study, the effect of defect length on the MF examination for corrosion detection of bridge cables is investigated through theoretical analysis and model experiments. An original analytical model to quantify the influence of defect length is proposed based on the equivalent magnetic circuit method. Then, MF examination experiments are performed on a series of cable models with different defect lengths and locations to verify the analytical model. Further, parameter study is conducted based on the proposed analytical model to clarify the mechanism of the defect-length effect. The results show that the area loss caused by short corrosion damage will be underestimated if the defect-length effect is neglected, and this effect can be quantified efficiently with the proposed analytical model.

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