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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (3) : 773-791     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-020-0627-2
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Evaluation of a developed bypass viscous damper performance
Mahrad FAHIMINIA1(), Aydin SHISHEGARAN2()
1. Structural Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2. Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
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Abstract

In this study, the dynamic behavior of a developed bypass viscous damper is evaluated. Bypass viscous damper has a flexible hose as an external orifice through which the inside fluid transfer from one side to the other side of the inner piston. Accordingly, the viscosity coefficient of the damper can be adjusted using geometrical dimensions of the hose. Moreover, the external orifice acts as a thermal compensator and alleviates viscous heating of the damper. According to experimental results, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model, a numerical formula and the simplified Maxwell model are found and assessed; therefore, the verification of numerical and computational models are evaluated for simulating. Also, a simplified procedure is proposed to design structures with bypass viscous dampers. The design procedure is applied to design an 8-story hospital structure with bypass viscous dampers, and it is compared with the same structure, which is designed with concentric braces and without dampers. Nonlinear time history analyses revealed that the hospital with viscous damper experiences less structural inelastic demands and fewer story accelerations which mean fewer demands on nonstructural elements. Moreover, seismic behaviors of nonstructural masonry claddings are also compared in the cases of hospital structure with and without dampers.

Keywords developed viscous damper      external orifice      energy dissipation      seismic behavior      CFD model of viscous damper      a simplified model     
Corresponding Author(s): Mahrad FAHIMINIA,Aydin SHISHEGARAN   
Just Accepted Date: 11 May 2020   Online First Date: 11 June 2020    Issue Date: 13 July 2020
 Cite this article:   
Mahrad FAHIMINIA,Aydin SHISHEGARAN. Evaluation of a developed bypass viscous damper performance[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2020, 14(3): 773-791.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-020-0627-2
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2020/V14/I3/773
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Mahrad FAHIMINIA
Aydin SHISHEGARAN
Fig.1  Internal details of the bypass viscous damper tested in this study.
parameter of developed bypass viscous damper Dc (mm) Ds (mm) L (mm) d (mm) m ( Pa?·s ) C (kN?·s/mm)
value 60 35 600 6.35 1.8 0.094
Tab.1  Characteristics of the tested damper
Fig.2  Adopted set-up for dynamic testing of the bypass viscous damper. (a) Schematic view of test set-up; (b) schematic view of viscous damper and actuator; (c) actual test set-up; (d) actual viscous damper.
Fig.3  CFD model of the bypass viscous damper. (a) The dimension of simulated bypass viscous damper; (b) flow and pressure in cylinder and hose of bypass viscous damper.
Fig.4  The main steps of the proposed design procedure.
Fig.5  Cyclic behavior of the damper in frequencies of (a) 0.25 Hz, (b) 0.33 Hz, (c) 0.50 Hz, (d), 0.67 Hz, (e) 1.00 Hz. (f) Force-velocity behavior of the damper.
Fig.6  Measured damper behavior under 0.5 Hz loading protocol. (a) Displacement; (b) velocity; (c) force; (d) dissipated energy.
velocity
(mm/s)
piston front pressure
(MPa)
effective piston are
(mm2)
damper power
(kN)
damping coefficient
(kN?·s/mm)
25 1.40 1864 ?2.61 0.104
50 2.80 1864 ?5.22 0.104
100 5.62 1864 10.48 0.105
150 8.48 1864 15.81 0.105
200 11.37? 1864 21.20 0.106
Tab.2  Damper power, damping coefficient in various fluid speeds.
Fig.7  Determined fluid pressure variations based on the CFD model (speed= 100 mm/s).
Fig.8  comparing laboratory results with computational and numerical results.
Fig.9  (a) Simulated simplified Maxwell model and comparing this computational model with the experimental test setup; (b) comparing experimental results with computational results in 0.25 Hz; (c) comparing experimental results with computational results in 0.33 Hz; (d) comparing experimental results with computational results in 0.50 Hz; (e) comparing experimental results with computational results in 0.67 Hz.
Fig.10  Selected hospital building and evaluation of scenario 1. (a) Considered 8-story hospital building; (b) first three modes in the case of building without damper.
Fig.11  analysis of hospital structure with viscous damper. (a) The first three modes of the building with viscous damper; (b) placement and modeling of viscous dampers.
direction story Φ ΔΦ weight ratio C (kN?·s/mm) no. of dampers each damper selected damper
X-direction 8 0.614 0.068 0.111 16.7 8 2.1 D2
7 0.546 0.082 0.134 20.1 8 2.5 D2.5
6 0.464 0.083 0.135 20.4 8 2.5 D2.5
5 0.381 0.083 0.135 20.4 8 2.5 D2.5
4 0.298 0.084 0.137 20.6 8 2.6 D2.5
3 0.214 0.083 0.135 20.4 8 2.5 D2.5
2 0.131 0.077 0.125 18.9 8 2.4 D2.5
1 0.054 0.054 0.088 13.2 8 1.7 D2
8 0.665 0.077 0.116 18.2 8 2.3 D2.5
Y-direction 7 0.588 0.094 0.141 22.2 8 2.8 D3
6 0.494 0.092 0.138 21.7 8 2.7 D3
5 0.402 0.088 0.132 20.8 8 2.6 D2.5
4 0.314 0.086 0.129 20.3 8 2.5 D2.5
3 0.228 0.087 0.131 20.5 8 2.6 D2.5
2 0.141 0.082 0.123 19.4 8 2.4 D2.5
1 0.059 0.059 0.089 13.9 8 1.7 D2
Tab.3  Distribution of total damping coefficient to different stories and final selection of number and damper models on each story (Φ = fundamental mode vector, ΔΦ = inter-story drift of fundamental mode vector, weight ratio= ΔΦ/sum (ΔΦ), D2, D2.5, and D3, respectively, are linear bypass viscous dampers with damping coefficients of 2, 2.5, and 3 kN?·s/mm)
Fig.12  Maximum inter-story drifts averaged from 10 record pairs with (a) MCE hazard level and (b) DBE hazard level.
Fig.13  Performance of the hospital structure (a) without and (b) with viscous dampers during ChiChi earthquake with MCE hazard level.
Fig.14  Performance of the hospital (a) without and (b) with viscous dampers during ChiChi earthquake with DBE hazard level.
earthquake X-direction Y-direction
DBE MCE DBE MCE
without damper
V (ton)
with damper
V (ton)
without damper
V (ton)
with damper
V (ton)
?without damper
V (ton)
with damper
V (ton)
?without damper
V (ton)
with damper
V (ton)
Northridge 3089 1503 3366 1936 2521 1679 2697 2071
Duzce 3207 1892 3604 2385 2297 1569 2493 1854
Kobe 3110 1394 3305 1811 2330 1460 2605 1735
Manjil 3069 1617 3647 2082 2674 1810 3082 2368
Cape 3177 1757 3570 2460 2437 1644 2883 1908
Kocaeli 3101 1906 3790 2427 2517 1574 3049 1929
Loma 3232 1731 3363 2398 2621 1730 2737 2319
Erzincan 3097 1717 3844 2148 2349 2034 2534 2378
Landers 3205 2028 3452 2564 2563 1748 2737 2252
ChiChi 3316 1846 3665 2344 2448 1406 2675 1926
average 3160 1740 3560 2255 2475 1665 2750 2075
Tab.4  Maximum base shear during different earthquakes (1 ton= 9.81 kN)
Fig.15  Maximum story accelerations averaged from 10 record pairs with (a) MCE hazard level and (b) DBE hazard level.
Fig.16  Accuracy of the design procedure to achieve the target damping ratio in terms of (a) inter-story drifts and (b) story accelerations under MCE seismic hazard.
Fig.17  Details of the considered nonstructural masonry wall. (a) The simulated masonry wall; (b) the detail of the simulated masonry wall.
Fig.18  The collapse of the nonstructural masonry cladding in the case of a hospital without dampers under the Manjil earthquake. (a) The cracked masonry wall at t=11.95 s; (b) the collapsed masonry wall at t=12.60 s; (c) the collapsed masonry wall at t=13.60 s.
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