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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (1) : 135-148     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0481-7
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Dynamic in-plane transversal normal stresses in the concrete face of CFRD
Neftalí SARMIENTO-SOLANO(), Miguel P. ROMO
Institute of Engineering, National University of Mexico, Mexico City, 04510, Mexico
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Abstract

Severe earthquakes can induce damages to Concrete Face Rockfill Dams (CFRDs) such as concrete cracking and joint’s water stops distressing where high in-plane transversal normal stresses develop. Although these damages rarely jeopardize the dam safety, they cause large water reservoir leakages that hinder the dam functioning. This issue can be addressed using well know numerical methods; however, given the wide range of parameters involved, it would seem appropriate to develop a simple yet reliable procedure to get a close understanding how their interaction affects the CFRD’s overall behavior. Accordingly, once the physics of the problem is better understood one can proceed to perform a detailed design of the various components of the dam. To this end an easy-to-use procedure that accounts for the dam height effects, valley narrowness, valley slopes, width of concrete slabs and seismic excitation characteristics was developed. The procedure is the dynamic complement of a method recently developed to evaluate in-plane transversal normal stresses in the concrete face of CFRD’s due to dam reservoir filling [1]. Using these two procedures in a sequential manner, it is possible to define the concrete slab in-plane normal stresses induced by the reservoir filling and the action of orthogonal horizontal seismic excitations acting at the same time upstream-downstream and cross river. Both procedures were developed from a data base generated using nonlinear static and dynamic three-dimensional numerical analyses on the same group of CFRD’s. Then, the results were interpreted with the Buckingham Pi theorem and various relationships were developed. In the above reference, the method to evaluate the concrete face in-plane transversal normal stresses caused by the first reservoir filling was reported. In this paper, the seismic procedure is first developed and then through an example the whole method (dam construction, reservoir filling plus seismic loading) of analysis is assessed.

Keywords CFR dams      dynamic analysis      in-plane normal stresses      concrete face     
Corresponding Authors: Neftalí SARMIENTO-SOLANO   
Online First Date: 06 June 2018    Issue Date: 04 January 2019
 Cite this article:   
Neftalí SARMIENTO-SOLANO,Miguel P. ROMO. Dynamic in-plane transversal normal stresses in the concrete face of CFRD[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(1): 135-148.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-018-0481-7
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2019/V13/I1/135
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Neftalí SARMIENTO-SOLANO
Miguel P. ROMO
Fig.1  Geometrical features CFRDs models
Fig.2  Experimental model of the concrete-concrete interface
Fig.3  (a) Concrete-concrete interface numerical model and (b) acceleration-time response of the rigid block to a sinusoidal excitation
Property Rockfill Slab, Plinth
Volumetric weight, g 20 kN/m3 24 kN/m3
Young’s Modulus: E0, Ec 45 MPa 22 MPa
Poisson’s ratio, u 0.33 0.20
Tab.1  Material static properties of the CFRDs
Fig.4  Location of the seismic station of El Infiernillo dam
Fig.5  Computed and measured responses to May 31, 1990 earthquake, (a) at seismic station E (dam crest); (b) vertical array seismic station H.
Material type Model parameters
a b gr lmin lmax K2
Compacted rockfill 0.95 1.05 0.0179 0.034 0.236 100
Tab.2  Values of parameters in Eqs. (4), (5) and (6)
Fig.6  Typical seismic excitation applied at the rigid base model
Fig.7  Three dimensional finite difference model of CFRDs
Fig.8  Variation of transversal stresses in some points of concrete slabs by reservoir filling plus seismic load, a = 0.40
Fig.9  Effect of joint spacing on in-plane maximum dynamic stresses in the concrete face
z/HAB
0.4 0.015864 Sj + 0.839288 0.023742 Sj + 5.240348
0.6 0.013579 Sj + 0.588079 0.023563 Sj + 5.524293
0.8 0.010722 Sj + 0.329766 0.018029 Sj + 6.207784
Tab.3  Parameters A and B for Eq. (9)
Fig.10  Effect of the valley slopes on in-plane maximum dynamic stresses in the concrete face
Fig.11  (a) Adjustment of trend lines for TV equal to 1.0, 1.5 y 3.0, and (b) curves defined from Eq. (10)
Fig.12  Dynamic in-plane transversal normal stresses in the concrete face to dams with heights, a = 0.4
Fig.13  Distribution of earthquake-induced maximum in-plane transversal stresses in the mid-section of the concrete face (y= 0 m)
Fig.14  Application example: (a) 3D finite difference model and (b) seismic excitation
Fig.15  Distribution of maximum in-plane transversal normal stresses in the mid-section of the concrete face (y= 0 m) caused by seismic loading.
Fig.16  Distribution of maximum in-plane transversal stresses at three elevations of the concrete face caused by seismic loading
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