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Frontiers of Materials Science

Front Mater Sci    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (3) : 203-226     DOI: 10.1007/s11706-013-0209-5
REVIEW ARTICLE |
Recent research situation in tin dioxide nanomaterials: synthesis, microstructures, and properties
Zhi-Wen CHEN1,2(), Chan-Hung SHEK2, C. M. Lawrence WU2(), Joseph K. L. LAI2
1. Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China; 2. Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China
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Abstract

This review article summarizes the new research in solid-state physical chemistry understanding of the microstructure characteristics of semiconductor tin oxide thin films made in the last years in our group. The work mainly focuses on the fabrication technology of semiconductor tin oxides thin films by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) as well as the application of this technology on new micro- and nanostructured materials. It is an interdisciplinary work that integrates the areas of physics, chemistry and materials science.

Keywords tin dioxide      thin film      synthesis      microstructure      nanostructure      property     
Corresponding Authors: CHEN Zhi-Wen,Email:zwchen@shu.edu.cn (Z.W.C.); WU C. M. Lawrence,Email:apcmlwu@cityu.edu.hk (C.M.L.W.)   
Issue Date: 05 September 2013
 Cite this article:   
Zhi-Wen CHEN,Chan-Hung SHEK,C. M. Lawrence WU, et al. Recent research situation in tin dioxide nanomaterials: synthesis, microstructures, and properties[J]. Front Mater Sci, 2013, 7(3): 203-226.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/foms/EN/10.1007/s11706-013-0209-5
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foms/EN/Y2013/V7/I3/203
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Zhi-Wen CHEN
Chan-Hung SHEK
C. M. Lawrence WU
Joseph K. L. LAI
Fig.1  Schematic diagram of a PLD apparatus. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Springer-Verlag)
Fig.2  SEM images of SnO thin films prepared by PLD with the substrate temperature at 400°C, 450°C, and 500°C. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Elsevier B.V.)
Fig.3  ln()–ln plots of the SnO thin films obtained from the substrate temperature at 500°C. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Elsevier B.V.)
Fig.4  The multifractal spectra () of the substrate and the three SnO thin films. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Elsevier B.V.)
Substrate temperature /°Cαmaxf(αmax)αminf(αmin)ΔαΔf
Room temperature2.0432.1692.0331.5900.010-0.579
4002.0590.5302.0081.1070.0510.577
4502.0700.5002.0051.1140.0650.614
5002.0840.6662.0111.6940.0731.028
Tab.1  Parameters of the multifractal spectra of the specimens
Fig.5  The typical morphology of the bulk-quantity highly amorphous thin films grown on Si(100) substrate is shown in SEM images at lower magnifications and higher magnifications. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Springer-Verlag)
Fig.6  XRD patterns of the as-deposited thin films; XRD patterns of the as-deposited thin film heating treated at 150°C for 2 h. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Springer-Verlag)
Fig.7  TEM image and SAED patterns (inset) of the as-deposited thin film heating treated at 150°C for 2 h; EDS recorded on the thin film annealing at 150°C for 2 h. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Springer-Verlag)
Fig.8  The larger nanoparticle with the size of about 9 nm. The inset at the upper left-hand corner shows two smaller nanoparticles with the size of about 6 nm. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Springer-Verlag)
Fig.9  XRD pattern of the as-prepared porous SnO thin film; the inset shows the nanopore number distribution. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2006 Elsevier B.V.)
Fig.10  SEM and TEM images of the as-prepared porous SnO thin film. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2006 Elsevier B.V.)
Fig.11  Lower- and higher-magnifications HRTEM images of the as-prepared porous SnO thin film. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2006 Elsevier B.V.)
Fig.12  Raman spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum (inset) of the as-prepared porous SnO thin film. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2006 Elsevier B.V.)
Fig.13  TEM image of the as-prepared nanocrystalline SnO thin film; SAED pattern (inset) corresponding to the tetragonal rutile structure showing the microstructural characteristics of the polycrystalline SnO thin film. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society)
Fig.14  XRD patterns of SnO thin films: the commercial SnO bulks; the as-prepared SnO thin film; annealing SnO thin film. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society)
Sampledhkl /?
Ref. [27]As-prepared thin filmsCommercial bulks
1103.3473.36083.3422
1012.64272.65362.6347
2002.3692.37202.3660
1112.3094--
2102.1189--
2111.76411.76671.7603
2201.67501.68231.6738
0021.59341.59641.5901
3101.4984-1.4932
2211.4829--
1121.4392--
3011.4155--
Tab.2  The relationship of the interplanar spacing () of index () in the direct lattice for different samples
Lattice parameterValue
Ref. [27]As-prepared thin filmsCommercial bulks
a110 /?4.7334.7534.727
a200 /?4.7384.7444.732
Δa /?-0.0050.009-0.005
c101-110 /?3.1863.1983.173
c101-200 /?3.1843.2013.172
Δc /?0.002-0.0030.001
Tab.3  The relationship of the lattice parameters for different samples
Fig.15  Raman spectra of SnO bulk materials, the as-prepared SnO thin film, and annealing SnO thin film. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society)
Fig.16  Symmetries of the optic modes of the tetragonal rutile structure for zero wave vector. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society)
Fig.17  O-1s core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of SnO thin films: the as-prepared SnO thin film; annealing SnO thin film. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society)
Fig.18  HRTEM image of the as-prepared SnO thin films shows its crystallinity; the inset at the bottom left-hand corner exhibits HRTEM image of a single SnO nanoparticle; the inset at the upper right-hand corner shows the agglomeration state of SnO nanoparticles in the as-prepared SnO thin film. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society)
Fig.19  Low-magnification HRTEM image and SAED pattern of the SnO particles. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Springer-Verlag)
Fig.20  HRTEM images of the as-prepared SnO thin films. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Elsevier Inc.)
Fig.21  High-magnification HRTEM images of SnO nanocrystallites: SnO cluster composed of several nanocrystallites; initial stage of the grain growth process. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Springer-Verlag)
Fig.22  Schematic representation of the formation processes concerning the nucleation, grain-rotation, coalescence, and growth of nanoclusters in the as-deposited thin film. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2005 Springer-Verlag)
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