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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2016, Vol. 9 Issue (2) : 138-150     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-016-0632-1
Subwavelength electromagnetics
Xiangang LUO()
State Key Laboratory of Optical Technologies on Nano-Fabrication and Micro-Engineering, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209, China
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Subwavelength electromagnetics is a discipline that deals with light-matter interaction at subwavelength scale and innovative technologies that control electromagnetic waves with subwavelength structures. Although the history can be dated back to almost one hundred years ago, the flourish of these researching areas have been no more than 30 years. In this paper, we gave a brief review of the history, current status and future trends of subwavelength electromagnetics. In particular, the milestones related with metamaterials, plasmonics, metasurfaces and photonic crystals are highlighted.

Keywords electromagnetics      subwavelength scale      metamaterials      plasmonics      photonic crystals     
Corresponding Authors: Xiangang LUO   
Just Accepted Date: 16 March 2016   Online First Date: 28 March 2016    Issue Date: 05 April 2016
 Cite this article:   
Xiangang LUO. Subwavelength electromagnetics[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2016, 9(2): 138-150.
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Fig.1  Brief history of the subwavelength electromagnetics
Fig.2  Various transmissive and reflective cloaks based on transformation optics [17,2325]
Fig.3  Sub-diffraction imaging and lithography based on hyperlens. (a) Schematic of the hyperlens for far-field imaging; (b) cross-section of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the hyperlens for plasmonic lithography; (c) SEM of the patterns on the mask and photoresist (Pr)
Fig.4  (a) and (b) Schematic of the ultrathin absorber based on the combination of AMC and resistive sheet; (c) ultrathin wide angle absorber based on high index metamaterials
Fig.5  Metasurface-based ultra-broadband coherent perfect absorber. (a) Schematic description [55]; (b) experimental demonstration in the microwave regime [56]
Fig.6  Active metasurface for beam scanning in the microwave frequency. The overall thickness of the antenna is 3.89 mm, and the operational frequency is designed to be 5.4 GHz. The mean insertion loss is less than 4.5 dB
Fig.7  Schematic of the anisotropic meta-mirror in (a) x and y directions; (b) schematic of polarization transformation for a p-polarization incident wave; (c) and (d) reflection coefficients for co-polarized and cross-polarized components for two microwave samples [76,78]
Fig.8  Catenary optics of perfect optical elements. (a) Schematic of the catenary aperture; (b) catenary array for perfect OAM generation; (c) SEM image of the catenary lens; (d) and (e) measurement of the Bessel beam generator and flat lens carrying OAM
Fig.9  Plasmonic reflective lenses for 32 and 22 nm lithography nodes. (a) Schematic of plasmonic modes in the cavity lens; (b) simulation results; (c) cross section of the fabricated lens; (d) SEM of the fabricated dense lines of 32 nm half-pitch; (e) cross section of the dense lines in (d)
Fig.10  Future trends of subwavelength electromagnetics
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