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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2015, Vol. 8 Issue (1) : 44-56     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-014-0439-x
Tailoring electromagnetic responses in terahertz superconducting metamaterials
Xiaoling ZHANG,Jianqiang GU(),Jiaguang HAN(),Weili ZHANG
Center for Terahertz Waves and College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, and the Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Information and Technology (Ministry of Education), Tianjin 300072, China
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Superconducting terahertz metamaterials have attracted significant interest due to low loss, efficient resonance switching and large-range frequency tunability. The super conductivity in the metamaterials dramatically reduces ohmic loss and absorption to levels suitable for novel devices over a broad range of electromagnetic spectrum. Most metamaterials utilize subwavelength-scale split-ring resonators as unit building blocks, which are proved to support fundamental inductive-capacitive resonance, to achieve unique resonance performance. We presented a review of terahertz superconducting metamaterials and their implementation in multifunctional devices. We began with the recent development of superconducting metamaterials and their potential applications in controlling and manipulating terahertz waves. Then we explored the tuning behaviors of resonance properties in several typical, actively controllable metamaterials through integrating active components. Finally, the ultrafast dynamic nonlinear response to high intensity terahertz field in the superconducting metamaterials was presented.

Keywords superconducting metamaterial      terahertz, active metamaterial     
Corresponding Authors: Jianqiang GU,Jiaguang HAN   
Online First Date: 11 August 2014    Issue Date: 13 February 2015
 Cite this article:   
Xiaoling ZHANG,Jianqiang GU,Jiaguang HAN, et al. Tailoring electromagnetic responses in terahertz superconducting metamaterials[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2015, 8(1): 44-56.
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Xiaoling ZHANG
Jianqiang GU
Jiaguang HAN
Fig.1  Microscopic image of YBCO SRR with structure parameters: W = 8 μm. G = 5 μm, L = 32 μm and P = 52 μm [16]
Fig.2  Measured amplitude transmission spectra of YBCO MM at different temperatures [16]
Fig.3  Amplitude transmission spectra at 6 and 26 K for two resonance modes at (a) 0.132 THz and (b) 0.418 THz, respectively. The solid lines indicate the fitting results to the experiment data. Inset: Microscopic image of MM sample with the incident electric field parallel to the gap [21]
Fig.4  (a) Micrograph of a representative eSRR. The light and black areas are YBCO film and the LAO substrate, respectively; (b) dimensions of eSRR are g = 4 μm, w = 36 μm, l = 36 μm, and p = 46 μm [24]
Fig.5  Terahertz transmission spectra of a 180-nm-thick YBCO eSRR array at various temperatures [24]
Fig.6  (a) Minimal transmission amplitude and (b) corresponding resonance frequency at various temperatures, from experiments, numerical calculations, and theoretical simulations. The inset in (a) presents both the real and imaginary parts of the complex conductivity of the unpatterned 180-nm-thick YBCO film at 0.6 THz [24]
Fig.7  Terahertz transmission of 100-nm-thick YBCO MMs exposed to near infrared femtosecond pump. The terahertz peak transmission is shown as a function of pump-probe time delay at 20 K with photoexcitation power of 50 and 300 mW. At Position I, the terahertz probe pulse arrives about 5 ps earlier than the optical pulse. It has lower transmission due to strong resonant response of the metamateria. Positions II, III and IV indicate various pump-probe time delays between the terahertz pulse and optical excitation. Inset: microscopic image of a 100-nm-thick YBCO MM unit cell. Besides, the incident terahertz pulse has the electric field polarization along the arm of SRR for all measurements [31]
Fig.8  Transmitted terahertz amplitude spectra of YBCO MMs as a function of various photoexcitation powers. The transmission curves shown in (a)–(d) are corresponding to the respective pump-probe time delay positions I – IV [31]
Fig.9  Transmission vs frequency (solid lines) at 6 K with various H dc = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 T (started from bottom) at (a) 0.132 THz and (b) 0.418 THz. The square symbols represent the transmission spectra at 6 K with H dc = 1 T and the solid triangle symbols represent the transmission spectra at 26 K with zero H dc [ 21]
Fig.10  Microscopic images of (a) subwavelength YBCO hole array on a sapphire substrate with a periodicity of P = 100 μm and (b) schematic diagram of an SRR unit cell with structural parameters [36]
Fig.11  Measured amplitude transmission spectra of the YBCO MM at 297, 183, 133, 86, and 51.4 K at normal incidence [36]
Fig.12  (a) Schematic of the three-level EIT-like MM. The geometric parameters are p = 120 μm, l = 64 μm, W = 48 μm, s = 4 μm, t1 = t2 = 8 μm, g = 15 μm, d = 90 μm. The incident direction and the polarization of the electric field was also indicated; (b) transmission spectra for the three-level EIT-like MM at various temperatures; (c) calculated group delay vs frequency at various temperatures [39]
Fig.13  Schematic of the SC MM unit cell with structural parameters: g= t= 5 μm, w= 10 μm, a= 50 μm, and a periodicity of P= 60 μm, where E and H represent the electric field and magnetic field, respectively [40]
Fig.14  Measured amplitude transmission spectra for the SC MM with various incident terahertz field strengths at 4.5 K [40]
Fig.15  Real (a) and imaginary (b) conductivities of 50-nm-thick NbN thin film with different incident terahertz field strengths [40]
Fig.16  Effective surface reactance X s , e f f and resistance R s , e f f of the SC NbN film located at resonance frequency 0.45 THz with various incident terahertz field intensity from measured complex conductivity at 4.5 K [ 40]
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