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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2020, Vol. 15 Issue (2) : 294-302     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0576-4
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Experimental study on high-efficiency polishing for potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal by using two-phase air-water fluid
Ziyuan LIU, Hang GAO(), Dongming GUO
Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
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Abstract

A high-efficiency polishing approach using two-phase air–water fluid (TAWF) is proposed to avoid surface contamination and solve the inefficiency of previous water-dissolution polishing techniques for potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal. In the proposed method, controllable deliquescence is implemented without any chemical impurity. The product of deliquescence is then removed by a polishing pad to achieve surface planarization. The mechanism underlying TAWF polishing is analyzed, a special device is built to polish the KDP crystal, and the effect of relative humidity (RH) on polishing performance is studied. The relationship between key parameters of polishing and surface planarization is also investigated. Results show that the polishing performance is improved with increasing RH. However, precisely controlling the RH is extremely difficult during TAWF polishing. Controllable deliquescence can easily be disrupted once the RH fluctuates, which therefore needs to be restricted to a low level to avoid its influence on deliquescence rate. The material removal of TAWF polishing is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of deliquescence and the polishing pad. Excessive polishing pressure and revolution rate remarkably reduce the life of the polishing pad and the surface quality of the KDP crystal. TAWF polishing using IC-1000 and TEC-168S increase the machining efficiency by 150%, and a smooth surface with a root mean square surface roughness of 5.5 nm is obtained.

Keywords potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal      controllable deliquescence      two-phase air–water fluid      high-efficiency polishing      material removal     
Corresponding Authors: Hang GAO   
Just Accepted Date: 13 February 2020   Online First Date: 16 March 2020    Issue Date: 25 May 2020
 Cite this article:   
Ziyuan LIU,Hang GAO,Dongming GUO. Experimental study on high-efficiency polishing for potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal by using two-phase air-water fluid[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2020, 15(2): 294-302.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-019-0576-4
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y2020/V15/I2/294
Fig.1  Corrosion structures of deliquescence.
Fig.2  Surface planarization mechanism in TAWF polishing.
Fig.3  Schematic of TAWF polishing device.
Polishing pressure/kPa Revolution rate/(r·min−1) MFmwp/(mg·min−1) Rotation rate/(r·min−1) Polishing time/min Preprocessing method Relative humidity/%
2–20 4–70 150 200 50 Lapping ≤15
Tab.1  Process parameters of TAWF polishing
Fig.4  RMS surface roughnesses and MRR at different ARHs.
Fig.5  Surface topography of KDP crystal before and after the polishing process at an ARH of 60%. (a) Before polishing; (b) after polishing.
Fig.6  The effect of polishing pressure on RMS surface roughness and MRR.
Fig.7  Black residues on the surface of KDP crystal.
Fig.8  The effect of revolution rate on RMS surface roughness and MRR.
Fig.9  Scratches on the polishing pad.
Fig.10  3D microcosmic morphologies of the polishing pads. (a) TEC-6377; (b) IC-1000; (c) 530N7501; (d) TEC-168S.
Fig.11  Surface topographies of KDP crystal obtained by using different polishing pads. (a) TEC-6377; (b) IC-1000; (c) 530N7501; (d) TEC-168S.
Fig.12  Microcosmic morphologies of lateral section of the polishing pads. (a) 530N7501; (b) TEC-168S.
Fig.13  Surface of KDP crystal obtained through composite TAWF polishing process. Surface topography (a) before and (b) after polishing; (c) surface profile after polishing.
Polishing stage Polishing pad Polishing pressure/kPa Revolution rate/(r·min−1) MFmwp/(mg·min−1) Rotation rate/(r·min−1) Polishing time/min Preprocessing method Relative humidity/%
1st IC-1000 16 24 200 62 15 Lapping (3000 Grit) ≤15
2nd TEC-168S 8 13 150 200 5 N/A ≤15
Tab.2  Parameters of composite TAWF polishing process
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