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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2018, Vol. 13 Issue (2) : 151-166     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-018-0470-5
REVIEW ARTICLE |
Motion control of multi-actuator hydraulic systems for mobile machineries: Recent advancements and future trends
Bing XU1, Min CHENG2()
1. The State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
2. The State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmissions, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
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Abstract

This paper presents a survey of recent advancements and upcoming trends in motion control technologies employed in designing multi-actuator hydraulic systems for mobile machineries. Hydraulic systems have been extensively used in mobile machineries due to their superior power density and robustness. However, motion control technologies of multi-actuator hydraulic systems have faced increasing challenges due to stringent emission regulations. In this study, an overview of the evolution of existing throttling control technologies is presented, including open-center and load sensing controls. Recent advancements in energy-saving hydraulic technologies, such as individual metering, displacement, and hybrid controls, are briefly summarized. The impact of energy-saving hydraulic technologies on dynamic performance and control solutions are also discussed. Then, the advanced operation methods of multi-actuator mobile machineries are reviewed, including coordinated and haptic controls. Finally, challenges and opportunities of advanced motion control technologies are presented by providing an overall consideration of energy efficiency, controllability, cost, reliability, and other aspects.

Keywords motion control      electrohydraulic control      energy efficiency      mobile machineries     
Corresponding Authors: Min CHENG   
Just Accepted Date: 25 September 2017   Online First Date: 07 November 2017    Issue Date: 16 March 2018
 Cite this article:   
Bing XU,Min CHENG. Motion control of multi-actuator hydraulic systems for mobile machineries: Recent advancements and future trends[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2018, 13(2): 151-166.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-018-0470-5
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y2018/V13/I2/151
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Fig.1  Motion control of a typical hydraulic excavator [3]
Fig.2  Layout of the HMLS system and its energy consumption
Fig.3  Typical layout of the individual metering control system [11]
Fig.4  Different control modes for energy regeneration
Fig.5  Typical flow matching control concept with pressure compensation
Fig.6  Layout of the dual-circuit EFM system [31]
Fig.7  Typical layout of the displacement controlled system
Fig.8  Displacement controlled system with pump switching
Fig.9  Circuit diagram of the open-loop displacement controlled system
Fig.10  Comprehensive view of the energy-saving principles and circuits. (a) Individual metering control; (b) digital hydraulic control; (c) displacement control; (d) ELS control; (e) VBO control; (f) EFM control; (g) with hydraulic transformer; (h) electric pressure compensator; (i) multi-chamber cylinder; (j) to drive the cylinder itself; (k) drive the pump for other actuators; (l) to drive the other cylinder directly; (m) energy stored in the hydraulic form; (n) energy stored in the electric form; (o) energy stored in mechanical form
Fig.11  Parallel high-speed on/off valves for dynamic improvement
Fig.12  Response improvement of the boom movement based on the EFM concept [27]
Fig.13  Additional oscillations when the valve is fully open [52]
Fig.14  Dynamic pressure feedback by valve-based or pump-based compensations
Fig.15  Instability/unsmooth motion of the switched hydraulic system
Fig.16  Typical operation mode of the CRC concept [3]
Fig.17  Position control interface using SensAble Omni devices [89]. (a) Coordinated position control; (b) joint position control
Fig.18  Coordinate system of the excavator and the operator using a human arm [95]
No. Energy-saving
circuits
Main challenges and trends
1 Individual metering
control system
? Smooth switching between different control modes
? Combination with advanced pump control technology (e.g., EFM)
? Better maintainability and redundancy strategy
2 Digital control system ? System pressure oscillations and low damping properties
? Digital components with low noise and high reliability
? integrated automation in production systems [104]
3 Displacement controlled system ? Energy management and smooth switching methods with less pump
? Electrohydraulic pumps with low cost and high dynamic
4 Hybrid control system ? Compact energy recovery unit with high dynamic [105]
? Energy storage unit with high power density and energy density
? Low cost, high reliability, and easy maintainability
Tab.1  Main challenges of the energy-saving control circuits
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