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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2017, Vol. 12 Issue (2) : 158-180     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-017-0455-9
REVIEW ARTICLE |
Review on the progress of ultra-precision machining technologies
Julong YUAN(), Binghai LYU, Wei HANG, Qianfa DENG
Ultra-precision Machining Center, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China; Key Laboratory of E&M, Zhejiang University of Technology (Ministry of Education and Zhejiang Province), Hangzhou 310014, China
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Abstract

Ultra-precision machining technologies are the essential methods, to obtain the highest form accuracy and surface quality. As more research findings are published, such technologies now involve complicated systems engineering and been widely used in the production of components in various aerospace, national defense, optics, mechanics, electronics, and other high-tech applications. The conception, applications and history of ultra-precision machining are introduced in this article, and the developments of ultra-precision machining technologies, especially ultra-precision grinding, ultra-precision cutting and polishing are also reviewed. The current state and problems of this field in China are analyzed. Finally, the development trends of this field and the coping strategies employed in China to keep up with the trends are discussed.

Keywords ultra-precision grinding      ultra-precision cutting      ultra-precision polishing      research status in China      development tendency     
Corresponding Authors: Julong YUAN   
Just Accepted Date: 16 May 2017   Online First Date: 07 June 2017    Issue Date: 19 June 2017
 Cite this article:   
Julong YUAN,Binghai LYU,Wei HANG, et al. Review on the progress of ultra-precision machining technologies[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2017, 12(2): 158-180.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-017-0455-9
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y2017/V12/I2/158
Fig.1  The machining accuracy of ultra-precision methods
Fig.2  Deformation and failure factors in different machining units [2]
Fig.3  The model of range of deformation
Machine producerMax. workpiece diameter/mmAccuracySurface roughness, Ra/nmType
Union Carbide, USA: Type 1380Profile accuracy:±0.63 μm25Aspherical turning
LLNL, USA: DTM-32100Roundness: 12.5 nm (P-V)
Flatness: 12.5 nm (P-V)
Profile accuracy: 27.9 nm
4.2Turning
LLL, USA: LODTM1625Precision of spindle rotating and linear feeding (in the X and Z directions):≤50 nm?Turning
Cranfield Company, England: OAGM 25002500Profile accuracy: 1 μm?Grinding
Toyoda, Japan: ANN 10100Profile accuracy: 50 nm25Turning and grinding
Toyoda, Japan: AHN60-3D600Profile accuracy of the cross-section: 0.35 μm16Axisymmetric and non- axisymmetric turning and grinding
Moore, USA: Nanotech 500 FG250Profile accuracy: 0.3 μm/Ø75 mm105 axis free form grinding
Precitech, USA: Nanoform700700Profile accuracy: 0.1 μm405 axis free form milling and grinding
Rank Pneumo, England: Nanoform600600Profile accuracy: 0.1 μm10Aspherical grinding
Tab.1  Performance of typical ultra-precision machines
Fig.4  Schematic of the fast tool servo
Fig.5  Schematic of the slow slide servo
Fig.6  Schematic of the tool for normal forming technology
Fig.7  The lens with curved wave structure
Fig.8  Micro sinusoidal grid surface (Tohoku University)
Layer typeBond typeBond materialPoreBond strengthTruing
Multilayer can be dressingResin bond grinding wheelResinNoneNot highDifficult, need dressing
Ceramic bond grinding wheelCeramicHaveHighEasy
Metal bond grinding wheelMetalNoneHighDifficult, need dressing
Single layerElectroplating grinding wheel(Metal)?Not highNone necessary
Brazing grinding wheelMetal?HighNone necessary
Tab.2  The specifications of super abrasive grinding wheel [21]
Fig.9  Schematic illustration of the ELID device
Fig.10  CMG grinding wheel
Fig.11  Silicon wafer after CMG
Fig.12  LT wafer (a) before and (b) after grinding
Fig.13  The compound machining method with physical and chemical effect
Polishing methodAbrasive
Chemical mechanical polishing polishing methodChemical solution and abrasive particle
Mechanical chemical polishingSoft abrasive (solid phase reaction with the workpiece)
Hydration polishingSuper-heated steam
Non-pollution polishingPure water or ice
Hydroplane polishingChemical solution
Suspension polishingSoft abrasive
Elastic emission machineSoft abrasive
Magnetic fluid polishingMagnetic fluid
Electrophoresis polishingElectric control of abrasive
Magnetic levitation polishingMagnetic fluid
Magnetic abrasive finishingMagnetic abrasive
Tab.3  Ultra-precision polishing methods employing new concepts
Fig.14  Classifications of processing principles for different polishing methods [3,42]
Fig.15  Schematic diagram of CMP
Fig.16  Curved surface mold of robot processing technology
Fig.17  Large size elastic optical plate after stress plate polishing
Fig.18  Schematic diagram of bonnet tool polishing
Fig.19  Schematic diagram of MRF [45]
Fig.20  FJP instrument developed by Delft University of Technology [58]
Fig.21  Principle of magnetic jet polishing [60]
Fig.22  Comparison of the stability of the jet beam and the magnetic jet beam [61]
Fig.23  IBF equipment (KDIFS-500) developed at the National University of Defense Technology
Fig.24  Processing result for the Ø200 mm f/1.6 aspherical mirror IBF (KDIFS-500). (a) Before processing (RMS 48.6 nm); (b) after processing (RMS 6.1 nm)
Fig.25  Ultra-precision ball lapper Olymball-E600
Fig.26  Ultra-precision ball lapper Olymball-D600
Corresponding techniquesDevelopment trendTechnical forecasts
Machine tool bedHigher rigidity and more stable accuracyNew materials, new technology and new structure
Spindle and drive systemHigher accuracy, rigidity, and speedNew principle, new material and new structure
Numerical control systemProcess intelligent controlIntelligent numerical control, expert process database and on-line detection
Online detection and error compensationHigher accuracy and speedNew detection principle/algorithm and new control/executive mechanism
Processing environment control technologyHigher stability and lower maintenance costProcess or station area control
Vibration isolation systemHigher stability and lower costMagnetic suspension, etc.
Machine tool transmission systemMore concise mechanism, higher accuracy and speedMotor direct drive
Diamond tool manufacturingSpecial grinding deviceIntelligent processing detection
Super hard abrasive grinding wheel dressingSpecial dressing systemIntegration of online detection and dressing
Non-damage grinding wheel and polishing padBetter surface quality and higher efficiencyAbrasive tool with chemical mechanical properties
Environment of grinding and polishingGreen and no pollutant emissionNew processing principle and new material tools
High efficiency and no damage machiningAutomation, batch process, process integrationNew processing principle and new material tools
High precision detection devices used in production workshopsNon-contact, high precision, high speed, and popularizationSimplified function
Ultra-small workpiece machiningComplex micro mechanismNano structured material cutting tool
Ultra-thin substrate processingTens of microns in thicknessNew processing principle grinding tool
Tab.4  Development trends and technical forecasts of ultra-precision machining technologies in the future
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