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Frontiers of Medicine

Front. Med.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (2) : 117-125     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0773-x
REVIEW
Advances in COVID-19: the virus, the pathogenesis, and evidence-based control and therapeutic strategies
Guangbiao Zhou1(), Saijuan Chen2, Zhu Chen2()
1. State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China
2. State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, National Research Center for Translational Medicine (Shanghai), Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China
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Abstract

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in early December 2019, 81 174 confirmed cases and 3242 deaths have been reported in China as of March 19, 2020. The Chinese people and government have contributed huge efforts to combat this disease, resulting in significant improvement of the situation, with 58 new cases (34 were imported cases) and 11 new deaths reported on March 19, 2020. However, as of March 19, 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to develop in 167 countries/territories outside of China, and 128 665 confirmed cases and 5536 deaths have been reported, with 16 498 new cases and 817 new deaths occurring in last 24 hours. Therefore, the world should work together to fight against this pandemic. Here, we review the recent advances in COVID-19, including the insights in the virus, the responses of the host cells, the cytokine release syndrome, and the therapeutic approaches to inhibit the virus and alleviate the cytokine storm. By sharing knowledge and deepening our understanding of the virus and the disease pathogenesis, we believe that the community can efficiently develop effective vaccines and drugs, and the mankind will eventually win this battle against this pandemic.

Keywords COVID-19      SARS-CoV-2      pathogenesis      evidence-based medicine      control and therapeutic strategies     
Corresponding Authors: Guangbiao Zhou,Zhu Chen   
Just Accepted Date: 21 March 2020   Online First Date: 20 April 2020    Issue Date: 09 May 2020
 Cite this article:   
Guangbiao Zhou,Saijuan Chen,Zhu Chen. Advances in COVID-19: the virus, the pathogenesis, and evidence-based control and therapeutic strategies[J]. Front. Med., 2020, 14(2): 117-125.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-020-0773-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2020/V14/I2/117
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Zhu Chen
Fig.1  The putative life cycle of SARS-CoV-2.
Fig.2  Cytokine storm and related symptoms of COVID-19.
Organs/systems Syndromes
General symptoms Fever, fatigue
Lung Tachypnea, hypoxia, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure
Blood Cytopenias, coagulopathy, febrile neutropenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation
Heart Tachycardia, hypotension, troponin elevation, arrhythmia, QT prolongation, stress, cardiomyopathy, acute heart failure
Liver Hepatomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, hypofibrinogeniemia, liver failure
Kidney Acute kidney injury, renal failure
Central nervous system Headaches, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, aphasia, paresis, seizures
Ileum Diarrhea
Musculoskeletal system Myalgia, arthralgia, rigor, rash, edema
Stomach Nausea, vomiting
Spleen Splenomegaly
Tab.1  Clinical features of CRS
Fig.3  SARS-CoV-2-induced injury and failure of the lungs, and therapeutic strategies against COVID-19. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome.
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