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Frontiers of Medicine

Front Med    2011, Vol. 5 Issue (2) : 185-194     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-011-0141-y
REVIEW |
Top-geoherbs of traditional Chinese medicine: common trait, quality characteristics and formation
Luqi Huang1(), Lanping Guo1, Chaoyi Ma1, Wei Gao2, Qingjun Yuan1
1. Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China; 2. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China
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Abstract

Top-geoherbs used in China are always featured with high qualities, and they grow in specified areas with specific environment. Recently, researches on top-geoherbs have attracted increasing attention in China and other countries. In order to have a thorough knowledge of top-geoherbs, this article reviews the concept, historical evolution, common trait and quality characteristics of top-geoherbs, and explains the forming mechanism including genetic mechanism and environmental mechanism. In addition, it introduces the influence of human factors on the quality of top-geoherbs. Finally, it proposes some problems that should be paid attention to in the researches on top-geoherbs.

Keywords top-geoherbs      common trait      quality characteristics      formation      biological mechanism     
Corresponding Authors: Huang Luqi,Email:huangluqi@263.net   
Issue Date: 05 June 2011
 Cite this article:   
Luqi Huang,Lanping Guo,Chaoyi Ma, et al. Top-geoherbs of traditional Chinese medicine: common trait, quality characteristics and formation[J]. Front Med, 2011, 5(2): 185-194.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-011-0141-y
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2011/V5/I2/185
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Luqi Huang
Lanping Guo
Chaoyi Ma
Wei Gao
Qingjun Yuan
Fig.1  The differences in essential oil of at individual level and population level. 1–5. Non-top-geoherbs; 6–7. Top-geoherbs.
Fig.2  Nested cladogram and frequencies of chloroplast haplotypes and scatterplota of genetic distances against geographical distances in . The bold and italic numbers besides haplotypes represent the number of wild and cultivated individuals with certain haplotype, respectively. Open small circles represent inferred interior nodes that were absent in samples. Each branch indicates one mutation.
Fig.3  The biosynthetic pathway of tanshinones. DXS: 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase; DXR: 1-deoxy--xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase; CMS: 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl--erythritol synthase; CMK: 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl--erythritol kinase; MCS: 2-C-methyl--erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase; HDS: hydroxy-2-methyl-2-()-butenyl 4-diphosphate synthase; IDS: isopentenyl diphosphate/dimethylallyl diphosphate synthase; IDI: isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase; AACT: acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase; HMGS: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl synthase; HMGR: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase; MVK: mevalonic acid kinase; PMK: phosphomevalonate kinase; PMD: mevalonic acid diphosphate decarboxylase; GGPPS: geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate synthase; SmCPS: copalyl diphosphate synthase;SmKSL: kaurene synthase-like.
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