Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (4) : 66
Distribution of aromatic amines, phenols, chlorobenzenes, and naphthalenes in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake, China
Xinyi Hu1,2,3, Ting Yang1, Chen Liu1, Jun Jin1, Bingli Gao2, Xuejun Wang1, Min Qi1, Baokai Wei1, Yuyu Zhan2, Tan Chen1,2(), Hongtao Wang2(), Yanting Liu2, Dongrui Bai1, Zhu Rao4, Nan Zhan4
1. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China
2. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3. College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
4. Key Laboratory of Eco-geochemistry, Ministry of Natural Resources of China, Beijing 100037, China
Download: PDF(1726 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks

• The total organic pollutant concentrations in sediment were 27.4-1620 ng/g.

• The phenol concentrations were relatively high in the sediment of the Dianchi Lake.

• Average total concentrations decreased as follows: Caohai>Waihai>Haigeng Dam.

• 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 3- or 4-methylphenol, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene might be risks.

Organic pollutants are widespread environmental pollutants with high toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation. Our aim was to investigate the distribution of aromatic amines, phenols, chlorobenzenes, and naphthalenes in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake, China. Nineteen surface sediment samples were collected from the Dianchi Lake, and 40 types of organic pollutants were analyzed via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The total organic pollutant concentrations in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake varied from 27.4 to 1.62 × 103 ng/g. The concentrations of phenols were much higher than those in other water bodies but still within a controllable range, whereas the concentrations of the other organic pollutant classes were similar or even lower. The detection ratio of 3- or 4-methylphenol was the highest (100.00%) among the pollutants. The average total organic pollutant concentrations decreased in the following order: Caohai (540 ng/g)>the middle of Waihai (488 ng/g)>the edge of Waihai (351 ng/g)>Haigeng Dam (90.4 ng/g). Pearson analysis showed a strong correlation among 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1,3-dinitronaphthalene, and 1,4-dinitronaphthalene (p<0.01). Caohai, the north lakeshore of Waihai and the south of Waihai showed higher risk because of high concentration; meanwhile, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 3- or 4-methylphenol and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were more likely to cause risks.

Keywords Organic pollutants      Lake sediment      Spatial distribution      Potential source     
Corresponding Author(s): Tan Chen,Hongtao Wang   
Issue Date: 17 April 2020
 Cite this article:   
Xinyi Hu,Ting Yang,Chen Liu, et al. Distribution of aromatic amines, phenols, chlorobenzenes, and naphthalenes in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake, China[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 66.
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Xinyi Hu
Ting Yang
Chen Liu
Jun Jin
Bingli Gao
Xuejun Wang
Min Qi
Baokai Wei
Yuyu Zhan
Tan Chen
Hongtao Wang
Yanting Liu
Dongrui Bai
Zhu Rao
Nan Zhan
Fig.1  Concentration (a) and composition (b) of organic pollutants in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (sampled in December 2016). N, north; S, south. Dashed lines mean average total organic pollutant concentrations in the different regions.
Fig.2  Concentration distribution of organic pollutants (the total four classes of organic pollutants (a), aromatic amines (b), phenols (c), chlorobenzenes (d) and naphthalenes (e)) and Pearson analysis (f) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake. The concentration unit in this figure is ng/g. In subfigure (f), ☆ stands for the 0.01 level (double-tailed), showing that the correlation is significant; ★ stands for the 0.05 level (double-tailed), showing that the correlation is significant.
Fig.3  Concentration and distribution of aromatic amines (Phenylamine (a), 4-Chlorophenylamine (b), 1-Naphthalenamine (c), Diphenylamine (d) and 4-Aminobiphenyl (e)) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g). The triangular symbols mean sampling points.
Fig.4  Concentration and distribution of phenols (Phenol (a), 2-Methylphenol (b), 3- or 4-Methylphenol (c) and 2,4-Dimethylphenol (d)) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g). The triangular symbols mean sampling points.
Fig.5  Concentration distribution of chlorobenzenes (1,4-Dichlorobenzene (a) and 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (b)) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g). The triangular symbols mean sampling points.
Fig.6  Variation trend of chlorobenzenes in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g).
Fig.7  Concentration and distribution of naphthalenes (1-Methylnaphthalene (a), 2-Methylnaphthalene (b), 1,3-Dinitronaphthalene (c) and 1,4-Dinitronaphthalene (d)) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g). The triangular symbols mean sampling points.
Fig.8  PCA of organic pollutants in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake.
1 N Cressie (1990). The origins of kriging. Mathematical Geology, 22(3): 239–252
2 Department of Ecology of Washington State (2013). Sediment Management Standards. Chapter 173–204 WAC. D. C. Washington D.C.: Department of Ecology of Washington State
3 W Ding, K M Aldous, R G Briggs, H Valente, D R Hilker, S Connor, G A Eadon (1992). Application of multivariate statistical analysis to evaluate local sources of chlorobenzene congeners in soil samples. Chemosphere, 25(5): 675–690
4 S Fan, H Liu, G Zheng, Y Wang, S Wang, Y Liu, X Liu, Y Wan (2018). Differences in phytoaccumulation of organic pollutants in freshwater submerged and emergent plants. Environmental Pollution, 241: 247–253
5 S Fan, B Wang, H Liu, S Gao, T Li, S Wang, Y Liu, X Liu, Y Wan (2017). Trophodynamics of organic pollutants in pelagic and benthic food webs of Lake Dianchi: Importance of ingested sediment as uptake route. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(24): 14135–14143
6 Y H Feng, Y S Lin, X F Zhang, Y G Xu, F Yu, J Xu (2007). Organic contamination in river sediment and its distribution characteristics in southern Jiangsu. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 26(4): 1240–1244 (in Chinese)
7 X Y Hu, B L Gao, T Chen, H T Wang, J Jin, Z Rao, X Q Zhu, X J Wang, B K Wei, N Zhan (2019). Distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Dianchi Lake surface sediments after the integrated water environment control project. Environmental Sciences, 40(8): 3501–3508 (in Chinese)
8 B Huang, B Wang, D Ren, W Jin, J Liu, J Peng, X Pan (2013). Occurrence, removal and bioaccumulation of steroid estrogens in Dianchi Lake catchment, China. Environment International, 59(3): 262–273
9 E Kan, C Koh, K Lee, J Kang (2015). Decomposition of aqueous chlorinated contaminants by UV irradiation with H2O2. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 9(3): 429–435
10 C Kang, S Bao, Y Wang, K Xiao, L Zhu, F Liu, T Tian (2018). Comparison of the photoconversion of 1-chloronaphthalene and 2, 3-dichlornaphthalene in water. Water Science and Technology, 78(9): 1946–1955
11 M A Khairy (2013). Assessment of priority phenolic compounds in sediments from an extremely polluted coastal wetland (Lake Maryut, Egypt). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(1): 441–455
12 H Li, R Qu, L Yan, W Guo, Y Ma (2015). Field study on the uptake and translocation of PBDEs by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in soils amended with sewage sludge. Chemosphere, 123: 87–92
13 Q Li, X Xu, Y Fang, R Xiao, D Wang, W Zhong (2018). The temporal changes of the concentration level of typical toxic organics in the river sediments around Beijing. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 12(6): 8
14 X Li, A B G Janssen, J J M de Klein, C Kroeze, M Strokal, L Ma, Y Zheng (2019). Modeling nutrients in Lake Dianchi (China) and its watershed. Agricultural Water Management, 212: 48–59
15 P Lin, Y Zhang, X Zhang, C Chen, Y Xie, I H Suffet (2015). The influence of chlorinated aromatics’ structure on their adsorption characteristics on activated carbon to tackle chemical spills in drinking water source. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 9(1): 138–146
16 X Lu, C Chen, S Zhang, Z Hou, J Yang (2013). Concentration levels and ecological risks of persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Tianjin coastal area, China. The Scientific World Journal, 2013: 1–8
17 W Ma, C S Pu, J C Luo (2013). Hydrodynamic characteristics of Dianchi Lake and its influence on accumulation of blue-green algae in Dianchi Lake. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 44(S1): 22–27 (in Chinese)
18 A Mahmood, J H Syed, R N Malik, Q Zheng, Z Cheng, J Li, G Zhang (2014). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air, soil, and cereal crops along the two tributaries of River Chenab, Pakistan: Concentrations, distribution, and screening level risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 481(2): 596–604
19 B G Oliver, K D Nicol (1982). Chlorobenzenes in sediments, water, and selected fish from Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Environmental Science & Technology, 16(8): 532–536
20 X Wan, X Pan, B Wang, S Zhao, P Hu, F Li, B Boulanger (2011). Distributions, historical trends, and source investigation of polychlorinated biphenyls in Dianchi Lake, China. Chemosphere, 85(3): 361–367
21 J Wang, C Yang, L He, G Dao, J Du, Y Han, G Wu, Q Wu, H Hu (2019). Meteorological factors and water quality changes of Plateau Lake Dianchi in China (1990–2015) and their joint influences on cyanobacterial blooms. Science of the Total Environment, 665: 406–418
22 X Wang, X Hou, Q Zhou, C Liao, G Jiang (2018). Synthetic phenolic antioxidants and their metabolites in sediments from the coastal area of northern China: spatial and vertical distributions. Environmental Science & Technology, 52(23): 13690–13697
23 Q Wu, C E Milliken, G P Meier, J E M Watts, K R Sowers, H D May (2002). Dechlorination of chlorobenzenes by a culture containing bacterium DF-1, a PCB dechlorinating microorganism. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(15): 3290–3294
24 M Wu, L Wang, G Xu, N Liu, L Tang, J Zheng, T Bu, B Lei (2013). Seasonal and spatial distribution of 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A in the Huangpu River and its tributaries, Shanghai, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(4): 3149–3161
25 J Yao, Q Gao, X Li, M Hu, M Miao, B Pan (2014). Investigating river pollution flowing into Dianchi Lake using a combination of GC-MS analysis and toxicological tests. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 92(1): 67–70
26 J Zhang, W Zhao, J Pan, L Qiu, Y Zhu (2005). Tissue-dependent distribution and accumulation of chlorobenzenes by vegetables in urban area. Environment International, 31(6): 855–860
27 S M Zhao, B Wang, D W Wang, X M Li, B Huang, P Hu, L W Zhang, X J Pan (2014). Environmental behavior of PAHs in Dianchi Lake distributions, sources and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Dianchi Lake, China. International Journal of Environmental of Research, 8(2): 317–328
28 W Zhong, D Wang, Z Wang (2018). Distribution and potential ecological risk of 50 phenolic compounds in three rivers in Tianjin, China. Environmental Pollution, 235: 121–128
29 Z Zhong, J Xu, Y Zhang, L Li, C Guo, Y He, W Fan, B Zhang (2013). Adsorption of sulfonamides on lake sediments. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 7(4): 518–525
30 L Zhou, H Cao, C Descorme, Y Xie (2018). Phenolic compounds removal by wet air oxidation based processes. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 12(1): 1
31 M Zhou, J Zhang, C Sun (2017). Occurrence, ecological and human health risks, and seasonal variations of phenolic compounds in surface water and sediment of a potential polluted river basin in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(10): 1140–1153
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Weichuan Qiao, Rong Li, Tianhao Tang, Achuo Anitta Zuh. Removal, distribution and plant uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a simulated constructed wetland system[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(2): 20-.
[2] Xinjie Wang, Yang Li, Jian Zhao, Hong Yao, Siqi Chu, Zimu Song, Zongxian He, Wen Zhang. Magnetotactic bacteria: Characteristics and environmental applications[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 56-.
[3] Kubra Ulucan-Altuntas, Eyup Debik. Dechlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) by Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles: Comparison with nZVI, degradation mechanism, and pathways[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(1): 17-.
[4] Hang Zhang, Shuo Chen, Haiguang Zhang, Xinfei Fan, Cong Gao, Hongtao Yu, Xie Quan. Carbon nanotubes-incorporated MIL-88B-Fe as highly efficient Fenton-like catalyst for degradation of organic pollutants[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2019, 13(2): 18-.
[5] Yuan Chen, Shaodong Xie, Bin Luo. Seasonal variations of transport pathways and potential sources of PM2.5 in Chengdu, China (2012–2013)[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2018, 12(1): 12-.
[6] Qing ZHANG. Predictive models on photolysis and photoinduced toxicity of persistent organic chemicals[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2013, 7(6): 803-814.
[7] Hongliang JIA, Liyan LIU, Yeqing SUN, Daoji CAI, Jianxin HU, Nanqi REN, Yifan LI. Endosulfan in the Chinese environment: monitoring and modeling[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2012, 6(1): 32-44.
[8] Ni SHENG, U Wa TANG. A building-based data capture and data mining technique for air quality assessment[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng Chin, 2011, 5(4): 543-551.
[9] Shaoyong LU, Xiangcan JIN, Fengchang WU, Jing SI, Jianning GUO, . Spatial distribution of phosphorus forms in sediments with different distances to the estuary of the Dianchi Lake, China[J]. Front.Environ.Sci.Eng., 2010, 4(3): 295-300.
[10] WANG Geng, WU Wei. Spatial distribution of ecological security status assessment of West-Liaohe River based on geographic information system[J]. Front.Environ.Sci.Eng., 2007, 1(4): 471-476.
[11] LIU Zhenyu, YANG Fenglin, QUAN Xie, ZHANG Xiaohong. Dynamic fate modeling of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane in the lower reaches of the Liao River[J]. Front.Environ.Sci.Eng., 2007, 1(2): 166-171.
[12] GENG Jinju, WANG Qiang, WANG Xiaorong, NIU Xiaojun. Effects of environmental factors on the production and release of matrix-bound phosphine from lake sediments[J]. Front.Environ.Sci.Eng., 2007, 1(1): 120-124.
Full text