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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (4) : 66     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-020-1245-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Distribution of aromatic amines, phenols, chlorobenzenes, and naphthalenes in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake, China
Xinyi Hu1,2,3, Ting Yang1, Chen Liu1, Jun Jin1, Bingli Gao2, Xuejun Wang1, Min Qi1, Baokai Wei1, Yuyu Zhan2, Tan Chen1,2(), Hongtao Wang2(), Yanting Liu2, Dongrui Bai1, Zhu Rao4, Nan Zhan4
1. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China
2. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3. College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
4. Key Laboratory of Eco-geochemistry, Ministry of Natural Resources of China, Beijing 100037, China
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Abstract

• The total organic pollutant concentrations in sediment were 27.4-1620 ng/g.

• The phenol concentrations were relatively high in the sediment of the Dianchi Lake.

• Average total concentrations decreased as follows: Caohai>Waihai>Haigeng Dam.

• 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 3- or 4-methylphenol, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene might be risks.

Organic pollutants are widespread environmental pollutants with high toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation. Our aim was to investigate the distribution of aromatic amines, phenols, chlorobenzenes, and naphthalenes in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake, China. Nineteen surface sediment samples were collected from the Dianchi Lake, and 40 types of organic pollutants were analyzed via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The total organic pollutant concentrations in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake varied from 27.4 to 1.62 × 103 ng/g. The concentrations of phenols were much higher than those in other water bodies but still within a controllable range, whereas the concentrations of the other organic pollutant classes were similar or even lower. The detection ratio of 3- or 4-methylphenol was the highest (100.00%) among the pollutants. The average total organic pollutant concentrations decreased in the following order: Caohai (540 ng/g)>the middle of Waihai (488 ng/g)>the edge of Waihai (351 ng/g)>Haigeng Dam (90.4 ng/g). Pearson analysis showed a strong correlation among 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1,3-dinitronaphthalene, and 1,4-dinitronaphthalene (p<0.01). Caohai, the north lakeshore of Waihai and the south of Waihai showed higher risk because of high concentration; meanwhile, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 3- or 4-methylphenol and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were more likely to cause risks.

Keywords Organic pollutants      Lake sediment      Spatial distribution      Potential source     
Corresponding Author(s): Tan Chen,Hongtao Wang   
Issue Date: 17 April 2020
 Cite this article:   
Xinyi Hu,Ting Yang,Chen Liu, et al. Distribution of aromatic amines, phenols, chlorobenzenes, and naphthalenes in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake, China[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 66.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-020-1245-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2020/V14/I4/66
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Articles by authors
Xinyi Hu
Ting Yang
Chen Liu
Jun Jin
Bingli Gao
Xuejun Wang
Min Qi
Baokai Wei
Yuyu Zhan
Tan Chen
Hongtao Wang
Yanting Liu
Dongrui Bai
Zhu Rao
Nan Zhan
Fig.1  Concentration (a) and composition (b) of organic pollutants in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (sampled in December 2016). N, north; S, south. Dashed lines mean average total organic pollutant concentrations in the different regions.
Fig.2  Concentration distribution of organic pollutants (the total four classes of organic pollutants (a), aromatic amines (b), phenols (c), chlorobenzenes (d) and naphthalenes (e)) and Pearson analysis (f) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake. The concentration unit in this figure is ng/g. In subfigure (f), ☆ stands for the 0.01 level (double-tailed), showing that the correlation is significant; ★ stands for the 0.05 level (double-tailed), showing that the correlation is significant.
Fig.3  Concentration and distribution of aromatic amines (Phenylamine (a), 4-Chlorophenylamine (b), 1-Naphthalenamine (c), Diphenylamine (d) and 4-Aminobiphenyl (e)) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g). The triangular symbols mean sampling points.
Fig.4  Concentration and distribution of phenols (Phenol (a), 2-Methylphenol (b), 3- or 4-Methylphenol (c) and 2,4-Dimethylphenol (d)) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g). The triangular symbols mean sampling points.
Fig.5  Concentration distribution of chlorobenzenes (1,4-Dichlorobenzene (a) and 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (b)) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g). The triangular symbols mean sampling points.
Fig.6  Variation trend of chlorobenzenes in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g).
Fig.7  Concentration and distribution of naphthalenes (1-Methylnaphthalene (a), 2-Methylnaphthalene (b), 1,3-Dinitronaphthalene (c) and 1,4-Dinitronaphthalene (d)) in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake (ng/g). The triangular symbols mean sampling points.
Fig.8  PCA of organic pollutants in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake.
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