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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (3) : 39     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-019-1123-6
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Analysis of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from the Yitong River in North-east China
Yangyang Yu, Xiaolin Zhu, Guanlan Wu, Chengzhi Wang, Xing Yuan()
School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117, China
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Abstract

The concentrations of four types of antibiotics in the Yitong River were detected.

The concentration of total coliforms in summer was higher than that in spring.

There was a seasonal difference in antibiotic resistance of E. coli.

The E. coli in the Yitong River was found to have multiple antibiotic resistance.

The Yitong River is one of the largest secondary tributaries of the Songhua River. The area where the Yitong River flows is densely populated and contains the livestock and poultry breeding areas of north-east China. These areas introduce a high risk of antibiotic contamination. In this study, the concentrations of four types of typical antibiotics including quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim were determined by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography. The antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli caused by antibiotic pollution was investigated. The concentration of total coliforms in the Yitong River was detected by the plate counting method. The antibiotic resistance of E. coli to quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim was analyzed by the Kirby-Bauer method. The results showed that the concentration of total coliforms in the summer was higher than that in the spring. There was a seasonal difference in the resistance rate of E. coli to antibiotics except trimethoprim. The antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones was relatively low. The resistance rate to tetracyclines was higher during the summer. Moreover, resistance to several antibiotics was observed in all sections. This study provides basic data for research on pollution characteristics and prevention of antibiotic exposure in rivers.

Keywords Yitong River      Coliform bacteria      Antibiotic resistance      Escherichia coli     
This article is part of themed collection: Environmental Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance (Xin Yu, Hui Li & Virender K. Sharma)
Corresponding Authors: Xing Yuan   
Issue Date: 11 June 2019
 Cite this article:   
Yangyang Yu,Xiaolin Zhu,Guanlan Wu, et al. Analysis of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from the Yitong River in North-east China[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2019, 13(3): 39.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-019-1123-6
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2019/V13/I3/39
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Yangyang Yu
Xiaolin Zhu
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Fig.1  Sampling sites on the Yitong River.
Antibiotic Susceptible (S) Intermediate (I) Resistant (R)
Ofloxacin 16 13–15 ≤12
Ciprofloxacin a) 21 16–20 ≤15
Sulfisoxazole 17 13–16 ≤12
Tetracycline 15 12–14 ≤11
Trimethoprim 16 11–15 ≤10
Tab.1  Zone diameter interpretative standard for testing antibiotic resistance (Unit: mm)
Antibiotic Water sample a) Sediment sample b)
Detection rate (%) Concentration range (µg/L) Average value (µg/L) Detection rate (%) Concentration range (ng/g) Average value (ng/g)
Ofloxacin 62.50 nd c)–1,361 0.479 0 nd nd
Ciprofloxacin 45.83 nd–0.615 0.312 12.5 nd–20.0 20.0
Oxytetracycline 4.16 nd–0.024 0.024 12.5 nd–9.25 9.25
Tetracycline hydrochloride 8.33 nd–0.266 0.264 0 nd nd
Sulfadiazine 37.50 nd–0.439 0.341 50 nd–5.875 3.229
Sulfamerazine 29.16 nd–1.083 0.387 0 nd nd
Sulfamethazine 4.16 nd–0.387 0.205 37.5 nd–19.825 9.904
Sulfamethoxazole 20.83 nd–0.551 0.153 12.5 nd–56.487 56.487
Trimethoprim 33.33 nd–0.393 0.209 0 nd nd
Tab.2  Concentrations of different antibiotics in eight sections of the Yitong River
Fig.2  The concentration of total coliforms in the Yitong River.
Fig.3  Antibiotic resistance of E. coli in the Yitong River.
Sampling section August 2016 November 2016 May 2017 Average value
S1 40.0 57.2 25.0 40.7
S2 45.0 25.0 44.0 38.0
S3 50.0 20.0 4.0 24.7
S4 15.0 21.7 8.7 15.1
S5 40.0 19.0 25.0 28.0
S6 50.0 35.0 16.7 33.9
S7 70.0 18.0 9.5 32.5
S8 70.0 37.5 27.3 44.9
Tab.3  Multiple antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli (Unit: %)
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