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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2015, Vol. 9 Issue (5) : 919-928     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-015-0794-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Efficient dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol in an aqueous media with a mild pH using a Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti cathode
Jiangkun DU,Jianguo BAO(),Wei HU
School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
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Abstract

In this study, palladium-loaded titania nanotubes was fabricated on a titanium plate (Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti) for efficient electrodechlorination of 2,4-chlorophenol with a mild pH condition. The nature of Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti electrodes was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The characterization results indicated the generation of Pd0 nanoparticles which were evenly dispersed on titania nanotubes arrays on the Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti surface. An effective degradation efficiency of up to 91% was achieved within 60 min at cathode potential of −0.7 V (vs. SCE) and initial pH of 5.5. The effects of the applied cathode potential and initial pH on the degradation efficiency were studied. A near neutral condition was more favorable since very low and very high pHs were not conducive to the dechlorination process. Furthermore, the intermediates analysis showed that the Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti electrode could completely remove chlorine from 2, 4-dichlorophenol since only phenol was detected as the byproduct and the concentration of released chlorine ions indicated near-complete dechlorination. This work presents a good alternative technique for eliminating persistent chlorophenols in polluted wastewater without maintaining strong acidic environment.

Keywords Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti cathode      chlorophenols      electrocatalytic dechlorination      wastewater treatment     
Corresponding Author(s): Jianguo BAO   
Online First Date: 09 June 2015    Issue Date: 08 October 2015
 Cite this article:   
Jiangkun DU,Jianguo BAO,Wei HU. Efficient dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol in an aqueous media with a mild pH using a Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti cathode[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2015, 9(5): 919-928.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-015-0794-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2015/V9/I5/919
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Jiangkun DU
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Fig.1  Side view showing the cross-sectional FESEM images of: (a) TiO2NTs/Ti (the inset is the top-view amplification of pores of TiO2NTs/Ti); and (b) Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti
Fig.2  Characterization of the TiO2NTs/Ti and Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti electrode: (a) XRD pattern; and (b) XPS spectra
Fig.3  CV plots of Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti electrode with varied scan cycles. (experimental condition: scan rate: 100 mV·s−1; electrolyte: 50 mmol·L−1 Na2SO4 and 20 mg·L−1 2,4-DCP; pH 5.5)
Fig.4  Removal of 2,4-DCP with Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti or Ti/TiO2NTs cathode. (Electrolyte: 50 mmol·L−1 Na2SO4 and 20 mg·L−1 2,4-DCP; pH 5.5; cathode potential: −0.7 V)
Fig.5  (a) 2,4-DCP dechlorination at different cathode potentials; and (b) relationship between pseudo-first-order kinetics and cathode potential. (Electrolyte: 50 mmol·L−1 Na2SO4 and 20 mg·L−1 2,4-DCP; pH 5.5)
Fig.6  Effect of pH on 2,4-DCP degradation in the Pd/TiO2TNTi electrolysis system. (Electrolyte: 50 mmol·L−1 Na2SO4 and 20 mg·L−1 2,4-DCP; cathode potential: −0.7 V)
Fig.7  Dechlorination test in the cathodic compartment of a divided electro-system connected by a salt bridge (a) byproducts of 2,4-DCP; (b) generation of chlorine ions. (Electrolyte: 50 mmol·L−1 Na2SO4 and 20 mg·L−1 2,4-DCP; applied cathode potential: −5.0 V; initial pH: 5.5)
Fig.8  Proposed dechlorination mechanism and pathway of 2,4-DCP on the Pd/TiO2NTs/Ti cathode surface
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