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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2015, Vol. 9 Issue (1) : 121-130     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-014-0727-0
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Whole pictures of halogenated disinfection byproducts in tap water from China’s cities
Yang PAN1,2,Xiangru ZHANG2,*(),Jianping ZHAI1
1. State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
2. Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
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Abstract

When bromide/iodide is present in source water, hypobromous acid/hypoiodous acid will be formed with addition of chlorine, chloramine, or other disinfectants. Hypobromous acid/hypoiodous acid undergoes reactions with natural organic matter in source water to form numerous brominated/iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In this study, tap water samples were collected from eight cities in China. With the aid of electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry by setting precursor ion scans of m/z 35, m/z 81, and m/z 126.9, whole pictures of polar chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated DBPs in the tap water samples were revealed for the first time. Numerous polar halogenated DBPs were detected, including haloacetic acids, newly identified halogenated phenols, and many new/unknown halogenated compounds. Total organic chlorine, total organic bromine, and total organic iodine were also measured to indicate the total levels of all chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated DBPs in the tap water samples. The total organic chlorine concentrations ranged from 26.8 to 194.0 μg·L–1 as Cl, with an average of 109.2 μg·L–1 as Cl; the total organic bromine concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 113.3 μg·L–1 as Br, with an average of 34.7 μg·L–1 as Br; the total organic iodine concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 16.4 μg·L–1 as I, with an average of 9.1 μg·L–1 as I; the total organic halogen concentrations ranged from 31.3 to 220.4 μg·L–1 as Cl, with an average of 127.2 μg·L–1 as Cl.

Keywords Disinfection byproducts (DBPs)      total organic halogen      tap water in China     
Corresponding Authors: Xiangru ZHANG   
Online First Date: 23 April 2014    Issue Date: 31 December 2014
 Cite this article:   
Yang PAN,Xiangru ZHANG,Jianping ZHAI. Whole pictures of halogenated disinfection byproducts in tap water from China’s cities[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2015, 9(1): 121-130.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-014-0727-0
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2015/V9/I1/121
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Yang PAN
Xiangru ZHANG
Jianping ZHAI
Fig.1  ESI-tqMS PIS spectra of m/z 35 of tap water samples A–H (a–h), respectively
Fig.2  ESI-tqMS PIS spectra of m/z 81 of tap water samples A–H (a–h), respectively
Fig.3  ESI-tqMS PIS spectra of m/z 126.9 of tap water samples A–H (a–h), respectively
Fig.4  Concentrations of TOCl, TOBr, TOI, and TOX (a–d), respectively, of the eight tap water samples, respectively (Data presented the mean and the difference between the detected value and the mean, n = 3)
Fig.5  Relationships (quadratic curve fitting) derived from the eight tap water samples: (a) The TII level in the PIS m/z 35 spectrum versus the TOCl concentration; (b) The TII level in the PIS m/z 81 spectrum versus the TOBr concentration; (c) The TII level in the PIS m/z 126.9 spectrum versus the TOI concentration
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